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36 Cards in this Set

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What is sonography?
a noninvasive medical imaging technique that uses high frequency sound waves (ultrasound) to visualize internal body structures
What is sonography used for?
Diagnosis, Treatment planning, Biopsy, Operating Room for tumor localization
What are the advantages of Sonography?
noninvasive, no radiation, no iV injection, portable, painless, relatively inexpensive
most commonly used imaging technique in the world today
What are the disadvantages of sonography?
operator dependence, bone/air/gas, obesity
What two types of transducers are there?
linear, with a rectangular screen and sector with a pie shaped screen
What are the uses of the linear transducers?
superficial structures: thyroid, parathyroid, breast, testes
What are the uses of the sector transducers?
deeper structures: liver, pancreas, uterus, ovary
What are the frequencies of the transducer?
2.25 MHz to 15 MHZ
How does the frequency correspond to resolution?
the higher the frequency the higher the resolution, the lower the frequency the lower the resolution
How does frequency corespond to the depth of penetration?
the higher the frequency the shallower the penetration, the lower the frequency the deeper the penetration
What are the three types of anatomic scanning planes?
sagittal- longitudinal (head L feet R)
transverse-
coronal
What is sonography excellent for detecting?
mass characterization: cyst (benign), solid (malignant), complex
detection of stones
how does one characterize a cyst?
echo free center, smooth back wall, acoustic enhancement
(if have all three of these things, 93% cyst)
how does one characterize a solid mass?
multiple echoes, back wall not smooth, no acoustic enhancement
what are some examples of cystic masses?
liver cyst, renal cyst
What are some examples of solid masses?
liver metastasis, renal cell carcinoma, seminoma
How would a lymphoma characterize on an ultrasound?
hypoechogenic, sheet of cells, not fibrous tissue, does not resolve thin walls,
What are some examples of complex masses?
hemorrhagic cyst, infected cyst, necrotic tumor, abscess
What are some characteristics of a complex mass?
features of both solid and cystic masses, 1/2 water
how can the nature of a complex mass be characterized?
determine how did it start off, was it a cyst or a mass
What can happen to tumors to create a complex mass?
tumor mass can undergo necrosis and create irregular borders
What are the clinical indications for sonography?
pregnancy/fetal evaluation, ovarian mass, RUQ/Urinary tract, Parathyroid Gland, Aneurysm/Carotid Artery, DVT-Other
How can the transmission of sound waves be enhanced?
improve contact with gel
When and where does fertilization happen?
Happens backwall of uterus, fundus, 6 days or a week before the patient misses their period
When can an embryo be visulaized by sonography?
when the embryo implants in the endometrium
what in the intradecidual sign?
when you can see the endometrial canal, 3 weeks after ovulation
What is the double bleb sign?
when you can see the heart beat, 6-7 weeks
What is the prognosis for a fetal heart beat that is less than 100< ?
The fetus is unlikely to survive
What is the double sac sign?
5-9 weeks/ pseudogestational sac of ectopic pregnancy
visualize a large balloon endometrial ccavity with a pseudogestational tract
What can happen at 11 week of pregnancy?
crown rump length can be used to estimate aproximate gestational age and estimate the date of delivery
Where are possible sites of ectopic pregnancies?
abdomin, interstial, angular, tubal, ovarian
What does an ectopic pregnancy look like on ultrasound?
empty uterus and bagel donut sign
What is anecephaly?
neural tube defect, can diagnose at 14 weeks
How do kidney stones visualize on ultrasound?
acoustic shadow
How do neuroendocrine tumors visualize on ultrasound?
hypoechoic
How do aneurysms visualize on ultrasound?
get a abnormal dilation of an artery, color of blood flow changes