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163 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Gender
Socially learned expectations and behaviors associated with each sex
Sex
the biological make-up that determines whether you are male or female
Social Construction of Gender
- connects face- to face interaction with institutional structure and socialization
- how we work & interact
- people have been taught "norms'
biological determinism
uses differences in sexes to justify inequalities
(ex: men stronger- they should be able to do certain jobs)
Gender socially constructed?
Yes, on a mico-level intercation
- we learn about gender when we are little
Gender
Socially learned expectations and behaviors associated with each sex
Sex
the biological make-up that determines whether you are male or female
Social Construction of Gender
- connects face- to face interaction with institutional structure and socialization
- how we work & interact
- people have been taught "norms'
biological determinism
uses differences in sexes to justify inequalities
(ex: men stronger- they should be able to do certain jobs)
Gender socially constructed?
Yes, on a mico-level intercation
- we learn about gender when we are little
Gender Roles
Expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of a male or female
Lopata and Thorne
- No predetermined sex roles- roles are "gendered female"
- given roles through social structure
- need to know what gender is appropriate (ex: boy or girl toys)
Messerschmidt
-tomboys and vioent girls
- rejected female roles
- recognized disadvantages to acting female (spent more time w/dad less doing chores)
Is sex socially constructed?
Yes, where do we understand what is make and female?
- you can change to be what sex you want
gender Role Expectations
ex: women in high rank. law firm- still asked to get coffee or write stuff down because she is the women expected of knowing how to do that
Mexican and Chinese Immigrants
-gender roles more fixed in these cultures
- immigrate- have to adopt other roles to survive
- when they stabalize continue to work hard & do adapted roles
Cultural norms
can change as a result of actual experience
African Americans
-show more support for feminism and equality of men and women
Af. amer. Women
-more likely to not gender stereotype
-have a more active role in household shaping childs viewpoints of gender roles
Functionalist Persp. (Gender)
-promotes stability
- form div. of labor
- easy to designate roles
(ex: women- emotional, men- tasks & linking to community)
Conflict Pers. (gender)
- competition bet. groups
- men institute power - benefits them
- women paid less
-DEVALUATION-historically of womens worth
Feminist Pers. (Gender)
- want to bring about social change
-social construction of knowledge ( on did heart disease research on men at first)
- beliefs that support women
Doing Gender
West & Zimmerman
- complex of socially guided activities
- Preformance of gender
- micro
(ex: men more likely to interrupt women speaking vs. women interrupting men)
Peralta
-binge Drinking
- men become more violent
- use drinking as excuse to do things
- drink or eat- calories in girls
Glass cieling
invisible barrier blocking the ability for a promotion based on gender, race, or ethnicity
"business as usual"
social norms
Institutional discrimination
-unequal rights or opportunities- resulting from the normal operations of a society (ex: men have higher car insurance)
Pink collar positions
lower paying jobs- nurses, dental hygenists, nursery workers
Budig
"glass elevator"
-men in pink collar positions
- get promoted quickly whereas women wouldn't
Institutional benefits
- not given to homosexual couples
Double Jeapordy
-qualitative additive model
(ex: woman + black + disabled)
- adds up to SUBORDINATE status quo
Matrix of Domination
- systems of inequality working together
- race/class/gender
- qualitative
- need to see how diff. structures interact
-diff priviledges to men and women
Patricia hill Collins
Matrix of Domination
Race exists and it matters
(ex: higher rate of diabetes in Nativ. Amer. )
- social issue, can't ignore
Race exists and doesn't matter
diff. racial groups but it doesn't matter
- "colorblind"
- no physical differences
Financialist Perspective
How it servs society
- dysfunction?
Changes in Media representation of Men
-increased body size
-increased gun size
- more extreme menacing
American Apartheid
- causes of housing segregation and outcomes
- makes it hard for blacks to move out of poor areas
- blacks preferred integrated housing- white wanted all white - segregation
Massey and Denton
American Apartheid
1968
Fair housing Act- prevent official segregation of housing
Consequences of Racial Segregation
- no jobs in these areas
- poverty in these neighborhoods
- bad education systems
- more crime
Functionalism of Racism
-Moral Justification
- those in power saty in power- prevents questioning of authority
- prejudice grows when the status quo is threatened
Status Quo threatened
(ex: If they felt white race was being threatened, made up excuses to hang black men)
Moral Justification
(ex: could treat slaves poorly because they believed blacks were less than human)
Conflict theory- racism
Karl marx - exploitation theory
- racial profiling- can pull over whomever in security check
exploitation theory
- dominant group opresses racial minority group to supply: cheap labor
interactionist theory of Racism
Contact theory- when people are around other people more, they are able to tolerate them better- must be in similar statuses
Steering
Realestate agent is bias and only gives houses to whit ppl
Great migration
- When blacks got to the north, not given housing
1930's National Assesment Standard
- value of home decreased with # of blacks living in neighborhood
1948
unconstitutional to discriminate against selling homes to black ppl
Minority Group
A subordinate group with no control
5 properties of a minority group
1) Unequal treatment
2) Similar cultural/ physical traits
3) Non voluntary- born into
4) Group solidarity- "in" and "out" groups within group
5) Keep marriage within group
Racial Group
Obvious physical differences
- biological
-in reality we are 99.9 % genetically the same
social construct
society places meaning on races socially
Ethnic Group
Distinct culture diff. set it apart
- (ex: Latinos)- diff races
(Europeans) diff cultures
2000 census
1st year they included mixed races
1980s census
would fill out your race for you
1910- blacks living in south
89%
1960s
civil rights movement
NAACP
Nationa Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Asian American
- group solidarity difficult- language barriers
Model Minority Myth
a few Asians migrate to US and do well- myth that all Asians do well (ex: all are good at calculus)
Native American
554 tribes- very diff. hard to have group solidarity
Latino
-Largest minority in US
-large % in Texas
White Ethnic groups
jewish, italian, irish, etc,
- used to be considered diff. than "white"
MacIntosh
"White Priviledge"
- nearly never minority
- always around other white ppl
- portrayed pos. on TV
- and always find matching band- aid
hate Crime
Motivated by a bias
- black ppl have most
Assimilation
a person leaves their cultural tradition to join another one
Melting Pot
Immigrants assimilate to Us culture usually for economic reasons
1812
Nativ. amer. kids forced into English schools
1934
Indian Reorg. act
- parents get to choose where kids go to school
Pluralism
Multiculturalsim
- mutual respect for on another's cultures
Mosaic
pluralism
- can co-exist together
(ex: little tokoyo, harlem)
Prejudice
Neg. ATTITUDE towards ppl
- pre-judging ppl based on appearance
Rascim
pre-judging based on race
ethnocentrism
when a person believes that their culture is the "right" way
discrimination
manifestation of prejudice feelings
- denying equal rights
Insitituntional Discrimination
- process of insititution, not individual
(ex: teacher using old book)
(ex: TV using racial characters for ratings)
Stratification of Mexico
Mexico
Poor, Middle, Rich
- most illiterate
lowest Mexicans
Mexican Indians
Middle Mex.
White/hispanic/ black mix
rich mexicans
white- spanish ancestry
Borderlands
common culture along border of US and mexico
- day laborers come over border
- multi- corps build there
- we rely on their labor
Globalization
through trade and exchanging ideas
- rely on other countries- chain
Cultural domination
domination of lesser countries by core countries
Restructuring
(ex: jamaica- rely on tourists but are in debt- opened international trade on incoming goods are cheaper than local ones)
Multinational Corps
commercial orgs. centered in one country but do business everywhere
- unequal power distribution
- could be helping poorer countries
- more efficient
dependancy theory
large nations exploit developing nations for their own gain
Life chances
How you can provide for yourself
- food available
- healthcare
- life expectancy
- infant mortality
- education
Social inequality and Mobility
-over generations
- immigration
- natural disasters
- labor structures
Wallerstein
3 groups of nations (Core, semi-periph., and periph.)
core countries
dominant- richest
Semi- Periphery
(china, India, Pakistan, Mexico, Panama)
periphery
exploited, controlled (haiti, vietnam, Bolivia)
Conflict of World Systems Analysis
- child-labor
- raw materials
- long hours

- taken from periphery to semi- periph. to develop product - to core country and sold
college degree
raises class
core countries
dominant- richest
Semi- Periphery
(china, India, Pakistan, Mexico, Panama)
periphery
exploited, controlled (haiti, vietnam, Bolivia)
Conflict of World Systems Analysis
- child-labor
- raw materials
- long hours

- taken from periphery to semi- periph. to develop product - to core country and sold
college degree
raises class
increases life chances
Intragenerational Mobility
how we work to change OUR position in life
(ex: walmart clerk moves up to lawyer)
Prestige Rankings
(Ex: police officer has more power than a professor, but a lower prestige score)
(Criminal my make more money, but lower prestige)
Prestige scores
change over time
(ex: after 9/11 firefighters prestige rose)
Stratification
(ex: geology- changes in earth's structure- sediment)
- women poverty raising
- sinlge moms- veyr poor
consequences of stratification
impact life chances
(ex: women and children helped first on titanic, lower class not helped)
Social Inequality
- members of society all have diff. amounts of wealth
(Ex: hurricane Katrina- poor told to evacuate, but didn't have any way to leave or anywhere to go)
Power
the ability to exercise one's will over others
Prestige
the respect and admiration that an occupation holds in society
Wealth
all of a person's material assets
(top 5% richest own 85% of total wealth)
Income
salaries and wages
(top 5% make 50% of income)
Marx
against Capitalism
- those who own production as opposed to work in it
- class is critical
Class
ppl with similar wealth and income
Onjective method
measures social class & wealth
Subjective method
where we rank ourselves in society
- symbolic interactions
- assumptions, aspirations, and social norms
Reputational method
"judges" called upon to select members of class
- will be considered of a certain class if others see you that way
social mobility
movement of ppl from one position in society to another
Open stratification systems
-encourage competition
- can go up or down based on achievments
- achieved statuses
Closed stratification systems
-slavery or caste systems
- based on ascribed statuses
- little possibility of moving up or down ladder
Slavery
legalized inequality passed from parent to child
Castes
religiously dictated and handed down in families
- "untouchables" lower class
Estates
feudalism
- passed down in generations
-no promotions
Vertical Mobility
switch prestiges
- truck driver- go back to school- become accountant
Horzontal mobility
move, but don't switch prestige scores
- airline pilot (60) - to police officer (60)
Intergenerational mobility
changes in social position of children relative to their parents (usually vertical)
- farmer parents- professor child
Collins
gendered profession (dentists)
- boundaries- who is hired
- assistants should be middle class white women "respecatble"
- created mechanic jobs for lower class males but not enough to threaten the dentits positions
household income in Us 2001
50,000- 74,999$ - largest percent of ppl's income
proletariat
working class
bourgeousie
capitalist calss, owns production
class conciousness
subjective awareness of common interests needed to bring about change
false conciousness
attitude held by class which doesn't reflect their objective position
Interactionist Perspective- stratification
influences ppl's lifestyles
- conspicuous consumption and leisure
Prestige score
Physician- 86 = highest
Newspaper Vendor- 19 = lowest
Absolute poverty
Australia = highest
dominant ideology
cultural beliefs and practices
esteem
reputation within an occupation
relative property
people at bottom are disadv. compared with the nation as a whole
informal economy
the trading of goods not reported to the govt.
colonialism
keeping power over people by a foreign power for a long period of time
human rights
universal moral rights posessed by all people because they are human
modernization**
peripheral nations move from less developed nations to more developed
modernization theory**
functionalist
- modernization and dev. will improve ppl's lives
Neocolonialism**
the dependance of former colonies on foreign countries
remittances**
"migradollars"
the money that immigrants return to their families of origin
white percent of pop
75 %
major Asian- american groups in US 2000
Chinese 21 %
Major hispanic groups in Us 2000
Mexican 58.5 %
Immigration since 1960s
majority come from outside europe and canada
most foreign born residents in US
from Mexico
affirmative action
pos. action to recruit minority group members for job opportunities
anti-semitism
anti-jew
amalgamation
majority and minority group combine to form a new group
contact hypothesis
interactionist
- interracial contact btwn. ppl of equal status will reduce prejudice
genocide
systematic killing on an entire ppl or nation
issei
Japanese immigrants to US
Neisei
Japanese children born in US to parents from Japan
Segregation
the physical seperation of 2 groups
stereotype
unreliable generalization about all members of a group
symbolic ethnicity
emphasizes ethnic food or political issues rather than deeper ethnic ties
Adult labor force
Japanese have many women workers for 40 yrs.
second shift
double burdern- work outside home and inside home (children /housework)
Instrumentality
emphasis on tasks- family external relationships