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32 Cards in this Set

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social stratification
describe inequalities among individuals and groups within human societies
stuctured inequalities
inequalities built into the system rather than resulting from individual differences or chance occurrences.
socially stratified systems share these three characteristics
1.social categories of people who share characteristics without interacting with each other.

2. peoples experience depend on how their social category is ranked.

3. ranks tend to change very slowly over time.
slavery
an extreme form of inequality, in which certain people are owned as property by others.
caste system
a social system in which one's social status is given for life.
in caste societies
individuals must remain at the social level theywere born in for life.
endogamy
marriage within one's own social group that is required by law.
class
a large group of people who occupy a similiar economic position in the wider society.
life chances
the opportunity you have for achieveing economic prosperity.
class system vs. slavery and Caste
1. class has more fluidity
2. class positions are somewhat achieved.
3.class is economically based 4
4.class are large scale and impersonal

slavery is personal you cannot move through caste system.
will caste give way to class
do to the increase of globalization, and the rise of capitalism ..highly likely .
Kuznets curve
a formula showing that inequality increases during the early stages of capitalist development, the declines and eventually stabilizes at a relatively low level.
income
wages and salaries earned from paid occupatiojns plus money earned from investments.
wealth
all assets individuals own such as investments cash savings etc.
status
refers to the prestige that goes along with one's social position. professor for eg.
upper class
consists of the very wealthiest americans +145,099
5%of americans
working class
20% of americans primarily blue and pink collar jobs.
lower class
15% of americans. includes aprt time workers and those who do not work at all.
underclass
poorest of the poor. consists mostly of African American who have been trapped into a vicious cycle of poordom.
social mobility
the movement of individuals and groups between different class positions as a result of changes in occupations wealth or income.
intragenerational mobility
how far they move up or down the socioeconomic scale in the course of their working lives
intergenerational mobilty
where children are on the scale compares to thier parents
exchange mobility
the ability to move up and down the social laddre if all opportunities were equal.
structural mobility
upward mobility made possibe by an expansion of better paid occupations at the expense of more poorly paid ones.
vertical mobility
movement along the socioeconomic scale. long range are very rare considering the fcatthat it would have a alot to do with education but families can't afford to send thier kids to recieve that education.
short-range downward mobility
moving from one jod similar tyo another and getting paid less for it. or if someone gets laid off and they have to find a less paying job that pays something.
absolute poverty
when a person or family cannot get enough to eat. really poor. less than 18 thousand for a family of four.
relative poverty
is being poor compared with the standards of living of the majority.
poverty line
an income equal to three times the cost of food.
working poor
those who are working but not making enough to lift them above the poverty.
feminization of poverty
talks about the fact that more women are becoming poor due to divorces, separation, and single parentness.
social exclusion
being denied access because of social category eg. the poor in poor neighboorhoods goes to poor grocery store etc. them attending collede or higher class institutios are rare because of the current status.