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109 Cards in this Set

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The special point of view of sociology that sees general patterns of society in the lives of particular people
Sociological perspective
What we considera a personal choice such as whether or not to go to college, how many children we will have, even the decision to end our own life is affected by what?
Social Forces
How did Peter Berger describe the sociological perspective?
Seeing the general in the particular.
The experience of being an outsider or living through a social crisis can encourage people to use what point of view?
Sociological perspective
What did C. Wright Mills call the sociological perspective, claiming it transforms personal troubles into public issues?
Sociological imagination
The systematic study of human society.
Sociology
The global perspective states that where we live does what?
Shapes the lives we lead
What are 3 ways that societies around the world are becoming increasingly interconnected?
Technology, Immigration, and Trade.
A way that allows people around the world to share popular trends.
Technology
What increases the racial and ethnic diversity of the United States?
Immigration
This has created a global economy.
Trade across the national boundaries
Are the social problems that we face in the US more or less serious than other countries?
More serious
Learning about life in other societies helps us learn more about what?
Ourselves
The study of the larger world and our society's place in it.
Global Perspective
Nations with the highest overall standards of living.
High-income countries
Nations with a standard of living about average for the world as a whole.
Middle-income countries
Nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor.
Low-income countries
What role does research by sociologists play?
Shaping public policy
On a personal level, what helps us see the opportunities and limits in our lives and empowers us to be active citizens?
Sociological perspective
A background in what serves as excellent preparation for success in many different careers?
Sociology
A way of understanding based on science.
Positivism
In the 18th and 19th century, what made people more aware of their surroundings and helped trigger the development of sociology?
Rapid social change
This moved work from home to factories, weakening the traditions that had guided community life for centuries.
The rise of an industrial economy
This created many social problems, such as crime and homelessness.
The explosive growth of cities
What is based on ideas of individual liberty and individual rights that encourage people to question the structure of society.
Political change
Who named sociology in 1838 to describe a new way of looking at society?
Auguste Comte
What did early philosophers try to describe?
The ideal society.
Comte wanted to understand society by using what?
Positivism
Karl Marx and many later sociologists used society to do what?
Make society better.
States how facts are related by weaving observations into insight and understanding.
Theory
What are the 3 theoretical approaches that sociologists used to describe the operation of society?
Structural-functional, Social-conflict, and Symbolic-interaction
Which 2 approaches are part of a macro-level observation?
Structural-functional approach and Social-Conflict approach.
The framework for building a theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability
Structural-Functional approach
What 3 sociologists helped develop the structural-functional approach?
Auguste Comte, Emile Durkheim, and Herbert Spencer
Who pointed out that social structures have both manifest functions and latent functions. He also identified social dysfunction as patterns that may disrupt the operation of society.
Thomas Merton
The framework for building a theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change
Social-Conflict approach
Which sociologist helped develop the social-conflict approach?
Karl Marx
Who identified the "double consciousness" of African Americans.
W.E.B. Du Bois
What approach is part of the micro-level observation?
Symbolic-Interaction Approach
The framework for building a theory that sees sociey as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals.
Symbolic-Interaction approach
Who claimed that people's beliefs and values shape society and is the basis of the social-interaction approach.
Max Weber
States that social life is guided by what each person stands to gain or lose from the interaction.
Social-exchange analysis
A basic image of society that guides thinking and research
theoretical approach
The consequences of any social pattern for the operation of society as a whole
social function
any relatively stable pattern of social behavior
social structure
any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society.
social dysfunction
a point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between women and men.
gender-conflict approach
support of social equality for women and men
feminism
a point of view that focuses of inequality and conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categories.
race-conflict approach
a broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole.
macro-level orientation
a close-up focus on social interaction in specific situations.
micro-level approach
What is a manifest function of sports?
recreation, physical shape, and a harmless way to let off steam.
What is a latent function of sports?
Building social relationships, and creating thousands of jobs.
Considering the social-conflict approach, gives some problems with sports.
1. Historically, sports have benefitted men more than women. 2. Some sports, such as golf, sailing, and skiing are accessible mainly to affluent people. 3. Racial discrimination exists in professional sports.
Considering the social-interaction approach of sports, list some understandings that people have of sports.
1. Within a team, players affect each other's understanding of the sport. 2. The reaction of the public can affect how players perceive their sport.
a simplified description applied to every person in some category.
stereotype
What does the sociological perspective tell us about whom any individual chooses to marry?
The operation of society guides many of our personal choices.
Which early sociologist studied patterns of suicide?
Emile Durkheim
Which early sociologist coined the term sociology in 1838?
Auguste Comte
Which theoretical approach is closest to that taken by early sociologists Auguste Comte and Emile Durkheim?
Structural-functional approach
Which term refers to the recognized and intended consequences of a social pattern?
Manifest functions
Sociology's social-conflict approach draws attention to what?
Patterns of social inequality
Which woman, among the first sociologists, studied the evils of salvery and also translated the writings of Auguste Comte?
Harriet Martineau
What are 2 basic requirements for sociological investigation?
To Know how to apply sociological perspective and be curious and ready to ask questions about the world around you.
A logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systematic observation.
Science
Information we can verify with our senses.
Empirical Evidence
Name 3 ways to do sociology.
Scientific sociology, interpretive sociology, and critical sociology.
the study of society based on systematic observation of social behavior.
scientific sociology
the study of society that focuses on the meanings people attach to their social world.
Interpretive sociology
the study of society that focuses on the need for social change
critical sociology
Scientific sociology requires carefully operationalizing variables and ensuring that measurement is what?
Reliable and valid
Scientific sociology observes how variables are related and tries to establish what?
cause and effect
How does scientific sociology see an objective reality?
Out there
What does scientific sociology favor?
quantitive data
Scientfice sociology can be researched where?
In a laboratory.
Scientific sociology demands that researchers try to be objective and suspend what as they conduct research?
Their personal values and biases
How does interpretive sociology see reality?
Constructed by people in the course of their everyday lives.
What does interpretive sociology favor?
qualitive data
What type of setting can you perform interpretive sociology?
Natural setting
scientific sociology is also called what?
positivist sociology
What does critical sociology ask?
Moral and political questions
What does critical sociology focus on?
Inequality
Critical sociology rejects the principle of objectivity and claims that all research is what?
political
Who criticized scientific sociology as supporting the status quo?
Karl Marx
What is scientific sociology loosely linked to?
Structural-functional approach
What is interpretive sociology related to?
Symbolic-interaction approach
What does critical sociology correspond with?
social-conflict approach
The mental construct that represents some part of the world in a simplified form.
Concept
A concept whose value changes from case to case.
Variable
A procedure for determing the value of a variable in a specific case.
measurement
specifying exactly what is to be measured before assigning a value to a variable.
operationalizing a variable
consistency in measurement
reliability
actually measuring exactly what you tend to measure.
validity
a relationship in which change in one variable causes change in another.
cause and effect
the variable that causes the change
independent variable
the variable that changes
dependent variable
a relationship in which two or more variables change together
correlation
an apparent but false relationship between two or more variables that is caused by some other variable.
spurious correlation
holding constant all variables except one in order to see clearly the effect of that variable
control
personal neutrality in conducting research
objectivity
repetition of research by other investigators
replication
List 5 ways that gender can affect research.
androcentricity, overgeneralizing, gender blindness, double standards, and interference.
List 4 things that researchers MUST do.
protect the privacy of the subjects, obtain the informed consent of subjects, indicate all sources of funding, and submit research to an institutional review board to ensure it doesn't violate ethical standards.
the persoanl traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male.
gender
a systematic plan for doing research
research method
a research method for investigating cause and effect under highly controlled conditions
experiment
a statement of a possible relationship between 2 or more variables.
hypothesis
a change in a subject's behavior caused simply by the awareness of being studied.
Hawthorne effect
a research method in which subjects respond to a series of statments or questions in a questionnaire or an interview.
survey