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20 Cards in this Set

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Norms
rules, expectations, and guidelines that govern what people should or should not think, feel or do in a given social interaction
sanctions
penalities (negative sanctions) or reward (positive sanctions) society uses to encourage conformity and to punish deviance
social deviance
behavior that violates social norms and is negatively sanctioned by society
Characteristics of deviance
1. no act is intrinsically deviant

2. deviance is defined through social judgements relative to particular norms and values
Crime
Violates 1 type of norm --
CRIMINAL LAWS
criminal actions
believed to be so damaging to the interests of society that THE STATE takes on the role of identifying and acting againt the criminal
Non-sociological theories of deviance and crime
physiological

and

psychological
physiological theory of deviance and crime
(Cesare Lambroso):
criminals have some organic defect or pathology that pushes them towards deviant behavior
psychological theory of deviance and crime
some emotional disturbance in the past left the individual mentally unbalanced. Imbalance causes, or influences, their behavior.
Functional Perspective on Crime and Deviance
Emile Durkheim
Functional Perspective on Crime and Deviance

THEORY BEHIND
some crime and deviance is not only normal, but also an integral part of healthy societies
"degradation ceremonies"
through society's responses to these practices, such as criminal trials, we are reminded of our norms and values.

--> the reason that some crime and deviance is normal, healthy, and imperative to societies
Robert Merton's Strain Theory: Anomie

Functional perspective
results from a recurring contrast between the American Dream and persistent inequality
Anomie: Emile Durkheim

Functional Perspective
an exceptional situation when the individual is no longer controlled by a moral code
Conflict Perspective on Crime and Deviance: Karl Marx
-Norms and Laws reflect ruling class ideology

-behaviors at odds with interests of ruling class are likely to be viewed as deviant and punished
Contemporary Conflict theorists' focus
focus on the way the criminal justice system reinforces inequality, and defines any behavior that threatens those in power
SYMBOLIC Interactionist Perspectives on Crime and Deviance

Labeling theory:
crime, deviance, and conformity result from the responses we get from others
LABELING THEORY:
(howard becker)
- social groups CREATE deviance when they make rules and apply the label of deviant to those who break them

- deviant/criminal label is a MASTER STATUS

-Labeling tends to produce a SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY
EFFECTS OF LABELING:

Stigma
a poweful negative social label that radically changes a person's social identity and self-concept
EFFECTS OF LABELING:

Retrospective Labeling
interpreting someone's past to fit with their current label of deviant