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31 Cards in this Set

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What is deviance?
Deviance is behavior that departs from significant societal or group norms.One is "deviant" if he or she breaks significant societal/group norms.
societal, group, norms
What is "postive deviance?"
involves behavior that overconforms to expectations. A person who IDEALIZES social norms are considered "positive deviants."
overconforming, expectations
What is "negative deviance?"
involves behavior that fails to meet accepted norms. A person who is either unaware, rejecting, or misinterpreting those social norms are considered "negative deviants."
failure to meet, accepted norms
What is social control?

What are the 2 different types of social controls?
Ways to encourage conformity to society's norms;

Internal: exists within the individual (conscience).

External: based on social sanctions-rewards & punishments designed to encourage desired behavior.
encouraging conformity
What are "positive sanctions" and "negative sanctions?"
Positive sanctions: awards, increases in allowances, promotions, & smiles of approval;

Negative sanctions: criticism, fines, & imprisonment.
+:promotions, smiles

-:criticism, fines
What does functionalists say about deviance?
Functionalists say that deviance has both - and + consequences for society.They also introduce the strain theory and control theory.

+ consequences:increases unity; acts as a temporary safety valve; promotoes need social change.

- consequences:erodes trust

strain theory:deviance is more likely to occur when a gap exists b/w cultural goals & the ability to achieve these goals by legitimate means (Robert Merton).

control theory:theory that compliance with social norms requires strong [social]bonds b/w individuals & society. There are 4 basic elements of the control theory's social bonds:
-/+ consequences

(mention strain & control theory)

4 elements of social bonds, "I sing my A, B, C's"
What is anomie?

What are the 4 deviant responses to strain?
A social condition in which norms are weak, conflicting, or absent

4 responses to strain:
Innovation-the individual accepts the goal of success, but finds illegal ways to suceed.
Ritualism-the individual rejects goal of success, but acts if he/she wants to succeed but does not exert much effort.
Retreatism-the individual rejects the goal of success & rejects the legitimate means.They do not seek success.
Rebellion-the individual rejects the goal of success & rejects the approved means for achieving it. He/she substitutes a new way to achieve the goal.
anomie-3 conditions of social norms

4 responses to strain: the 3 R's & an I (I run, rock, & roll)=I.R.R.R.
What does symbolic interactionists say about deviance?
Symbolic interactionists say that deviance is transmitted into socialization.They distinguish degrees of deviance, & the differential association and labeling theory are introduced.

Degrees of deviance:
Primary-deviance involving isolated acts of deviance by a person;
Secondary-deviance in which an individual's life & identity are organized aroung breaking society's norms.
D.a. theory; labeling theory; degrees of deviance (mention the degrees of deviance).
What is the differential association theory?

What is the labeling theory?
Differential association
theory that individuals learn deviance in proportion to # of deviant acts they are exposed to.

Labeling theory:
theory that society changes deviance by identifying particular members as deviant.
d.a. theory-a person learns deviance to actions they are exposed to.

Labeling theory-if a person fits that label, then they are deviant.
What is a stigma?
An undesirable trait/label that is used to characterize an individual.
undersirable trait/label
What does the control theorists say about deviance?
Control theorists views deviance in the terms of social inequality & power.The rich and powerful use their positions to determine which acts are deviant and how deviants should be punished. Control theorists believe that minorities receive unequal treatment in the American criminal justice system.
social inequality; power; rich & the powerful; minoritites & un= treatment.
What is victim discounting?
A process of reducing the seriousness of the crimes that injure people of lower status.
A process; reduce of seriousness of crimes.
What is a white collar crime? Give examples.
Job-related crimes committed by high-status people.

Some examples:
Price fixing, insider trading, illegal rebates, embezzlement; toxic pollution.
job-related; high status people.

E.g., embezzlement & toxic polluction.
What is a crime?

Who gathers crime statistics?

What is the criminal justice system?
Crime: acts in violation of statute law.

The major source who collects the crime statistics are the Federal Bureau of Investigation's UCR (Uniform Crime Reports, gathered from police departments across the country.

Juvenile crime-the third largest category of crime in the United States.

Criminal Justice System:
System comprising institutions/processes responsible for enforcing criminal statues.
violation of something
What are (4) methods that attempt to discourage crime?

What is incarceration?
5 Methods to discourage crime:

Deterrence-discouraging criminal acts by threating punishment.

Retribution-punishment intended to make criminals pay compensation for their acts.

Rehabilitation-Process of changing/reforming a criminal through socialization.

Recidivism-a repetition of /return to criminal behavior.

a method of protecting society from criminals by keeping them in prison.
the 4 methods: the 3 R's & a D. (D.R.R.R.) Dance, rap, rock, ring!
Deviance is decided by 2 things?
(1) Extent of disaprroval: the # of people who condemn an act must be considerable.

(2)Degree of Societal Outrage:
the hostility/outrage set off by the act must be intense.
Marxian theory (for deviance)
"The rich + powerful use the law to maintain their social position"
What levels do social controls happen on?
1)Parents-punish + reward children

2)Peer groups-establish dress codes/friendship norms

3)Workplace-set standards + norms

4)Society-establishes laws + government regulations that control behavior
3 crime fallacies
The Dramatic fallacy-the fallacy presented by tv shows that give a highly inaccurate general picture of a crime, even murder.

The Not-me Fallacy-the illusion that I could never do a crime.

The Innocent Youth Fallacy-the fallacy presented by tv that usually portrays middle aged offenders of victims, as being innocent & corrupted by older people.
2 crime fallacies
The Ingenuity Fallacy-the fallacy that exaggerates the offender's cleverness. The truth is that a offender who commits the crime usually does in a quick, easy, & casual approach.

The Cops + Courts Fallacy-the fallacy that overrates the importance of the criminal justice system. "Not all crime pays."
What are the 2 categories of crimes?
(1)Felony=serious crime (physical violence)

(2)Misdemeanor=minor crimes (the punishment is a fine or less than a year in jail).
Who reports or keeps crime stats & trends?
(1) Uniform Crime Report

(2) National Crime Victim Survey

(3)Medical Reports (doctor reporting, emergency room episodes).
Describe systematic observation?
A. count prostitues on the street;
B. observe drunks hanging out;
C. observe graffitti on walls;
D. observe vandalized public phones;
E. Notice litter.
Effects of deviance
+promotes unity
+can identify problems

-deviance disrupts norms
-deviance makes life unpredictable.
What are the 4 steps of justice system?
(1) Apprehending suspected offenders;

(2)Determine innocence of guilt;

(3)Deciding punishment;

(4)Keep guilty separated from citizens.
What are the 3 major elements of the criminal justice system?
1) Police

2) Courts

3)The Correctional System
They determine...
who is arrested
who is warned
who is pursued.
The courts take full responsibility for

determinining innocence/guilt
assigning punishment.
The Correctional System
Serves 4 major functions:
1)retribution; 2)detterence; 3) rehabilitation; 4)social protection.
What is Plea Bargaining?
In plea bargaining, an accused person will plead guilty to a crime less serious than the crime of which he/she is accussed. In return, that person receives a lighter sentence.

Research shows that the offender receives a lighter sentence than the ones who plead innocent, but are found guilty.
Who was the researcher of the 2 teenage gangs at Hannibal H.S.?
William Chambliss (who observed them for 2 years).

Saints-a gang of 8 middle class white boys

Rough necks-a gang of 6 lower class white boys.