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112 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The Economy
The social institution that organizes a social production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services
Importance of The Agricultural Revolution
The resulting surplus meant that not everyone had to produce food, so many took on specialized work and towns sprang up
The Industrial Revolution
The development of industry change the economy

it raised the standards of living, but the benefits were not shared equally
The Information revolution
Automated machinery reduced the role of human labor - the computer has blurred the line between home and work life
The primary sector
the part of the economy that draws raw materials from the natural envirnoment
The secondary sector
the part of the economy that transforms raw materials into manufactured goods
THe tertiary sector
the part of the economy that involves services rather than goods
An economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are privately owned
An economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are collectively owned
Wlfare Capitalims
An economic and political system that combines a mostely market-based economy with extensive social welfare programs
Work in the post-industrial economy
Regions of the country with greatest labor forces participation are better off

Farming has rapidly declined, which shrinks the primary sector

A majority of workers have moved into service occupations, creating a middle-class
The white coller jobs...
have increased greatly over the years
THe primary labor market
Jobs that provide extensive benefits to workers, which include white-collar as well as upper management
The secondary labor market
Jobs that provide minimal benefits to it's workers

includes though emplyed in low-skilled sector jobs
An organization with a legal existence, including rights nad liabilities
Our society must face the challenge of providing millions of people with the ...
computer skills necessary to survive
The social institution that distributes power, sets a society's egeneda, and makes decisions
the ability to achieve desired ends despite resistance from others
A formal orgnaization that directs the political life of a society
power the people perceive as legitimate rather than coercive
Traditional authority
Power legitimized through respect for long-established cultural patterns
Rational-legal authority
power legitimized by legally anacted rules and regulations
Charismatic Authory
Power legitimized thorugh extraordinary personal abilities that inspire devotion and obedience
A single family rules from generation to generation

This is typical in agrarian socities
A type of political system which givers power to the people as a whole

most rich countries claim to be democracies
Denies popular participation in governemtn and is indifferent to people's needs
A highly centralized political system that extensively regulates people's lives

They allow no opposition
Welfare state
a range of government agencies and programs that provides benefits to the population
Special interest group
A political alliance of people interested in some economic or social issue
Political action committees
Organizations formed by special-interest groups, independent of political parties, to pursue political aims by raising and spending money
The pluralist model
Sees power as dispersed among many competing interest groups
The power-elite model
Sees power as concerntrated among the rich
The marxist political-economy model
Explains politics in terms of society's economic system
Acts of violense of the threat of such violence used by an individual of group as a politial strategy

Terrorists try to paint violense as a legitimate political tactis
Organized armed conflict between the people of varions societies, directed by their government
Approaches to peace
- Deterrence
- High-technology defense
- Diplomacy and disarmament
- Resolving underlying conflict
A social institution found in all societies that unites people in cooperative groups to oversee the bearing and raising of children
A social bond based on blood, marriage, or adoption
The nuclear family
one or two parents and their children
Marriage between people of the same social category
Marriage between people of difference social categories
In preindustrial societies, most newlyweds...
live with one set of parents
A married couple lives with or near the husband's family
A married couple lives with or near the wife's family
The system by which members of a soceity trace kinship over generations
Partrilineal descent/matrilineal descent/bilateral descent
Tracing kinship through men/women/both
The family performs several vital tacks, such as
1.) Socialization
2.) Regulation of sexual activity
3.) social placement
4.) material and emotional secuity
Conflict theorists point out how the family perpetuates social inequality by...
1.) Property and inheritance
2.) Patriarchy
3.) Racial and ethnic inequality

Family places a role in social stratification
Theoretical analysis of the family
Family living offers an opportunity for intimacy
Married women are...
less happy than single women
Married men live...
longer than single men
4 out of 5 people who divorce...
29% of families with children under 18 have...
only one parent in the home
the sharing of a household by an unmarried couple
Within a decared, 2 or 3 percent of births in high-income nations
may be the result of new reproductive technologies
That which people set apart as extraordinary, inspiring a sense of awe and reverence
A social institution involving beliefs and practices based on a conception of the sacred
Structural-Functional Analysis of religion
Society has a power of its own beyond the life of the individual

society itself is a "godlike" being

People transform everyday objects into sacred symbols of their collective life
Symbolic-interaction analysis of religion
Religion is socially constructed

Individuals share in the distinction between the sacred and the profane

whenever humans confront uncertainty we turn to our scared symbols
Social-conflict analysis of religion
Religion serves ruling elites by legitimizing the status quo and diverty people's attention from social inequities

Religion encourages people to look hopefully to a better world to come

religion and social inequality are linked through gender
What aparked the industrial revolution?
The religious doctrine of calvinism
Liberation theology
A fusion of christian principles with political activism
An organization that is well integrated into the large society
An organization that stands apart from the larger society
An organization that is largely outside a society's cultural traditiosn
the importance of religion in a person's life
the historical decline in the importance of the supernatural and the sacred
Civel religion
A quasi-religious loyalty bindking individuals in a basically secular society
The social institution through which society provides its members with important knowledge
The manifest functions of schooling
- Socialization
- Links the generations
- hlpes integrate culturally diverse people by teaching a common language
- helps people assume approved statuses
- sorts students according to talents
Latend functions of education
Keeps children occuptied so parents can work

Cultural values
- Competition
- Hierarchy
- creativity and it's limits
The hidden curriculum
Subtle presentations of political or cultural ideas in the classroom
Functional illiteracy
A lack of reading and writing skills needed for everyday living
Social epidemiology
The study of how healthy and diseases are distributed throughout a society's population
The less schooling people have, the greater their chances of
The social institution that focuses on bombating disease and improving health
Holistic medicine
An approach to health care taht emphasizes prevention of illness and takes into account a person's entire physical and social envirnment
Structural-Functional Analysis
Medicine is viewed as society's strategy to keey its members healthy

illness is dysfunctional because it undermines peoples abilities to perfrom their roles
The sick role
patterms of behavior defined as appropriate for people are ill
Symbolic-interaction analysis of medicine
Health and medical care are socially constructed by people in everyday interaction

If we socially construct our ideas of health, members of a poor society may view hunger as normal

How we respond to illness is based on social definitions
Social conflict analysis of medicine
Medicine is tied to the operation of capitalism

Profits turned health into corporation

Racial and sexual discrimination has been supported by scientific opinions
Studies factors that affect

population growth and decline

population movement

composition of population
Crude birth rate
The number of live births in a given year for every thousand people in a population
Mortaility rate
The number of deaths among infants under one year of age for each thousand live births in a givern year
the movement of poeple into and out of a specified area
Why did people use to favor large families?
Because human labor was the key to productivity
Malthusian Theory
a warning that population increase would lead to social chaos

- Population increases by geometic progress would soar out of control
- food production would increase only in arithmetic progression
- people are reproducing beyond what the planet can feed
Demographic transition theory
The thesis that population patterns reflect a society's level of technological development

Pre-industrial societies have high births rates and high death rates

Industrialization lowers death rates and increases food supply
Zero population growth
the level of reproduction that maintains population at a steady state
the concentration of humanity into cities

The emergense of cities led to higher standards of living

As the middle ages came to a close, increasing commerce created a new middle class
Native Ameriances formed..
permanent settlements

added to the growth of us cities
The spread of cillages and towns came
after european colonization
Early in the nineteenth century...
towns sprang up!
Urban expansion was greatest in the
northern states
Sunbelt cities
located in the south and west

60% of our population live in these areas
Regional cities
Metropolitan areas with 50,000 or more peopple plus densely populated surrounding counties
Edge cities
business center some distance from the old downtowns

The population here peaks during the work day
Third-world cities
center cities surround by shanty towns
Who studied how life in the new metropolis differed from life in rural villages?
Ferdinand Tonnies
People are closely tied by kinship and tradition
People come together only on the basis of individual self-interest
Mechanical solidarity
Traditional, rural life. People share traditions and lifestyles. They are not highly differeentiated and do not value difference
Organic solidarity
social bonds based on specialization and independence. People play different roles and are bound together by their differences
What % of our waste doesn't go away?
Social change
The transformation of culture and social institutions over time
Cultural lag
Some cultural elements change faster than others
Most social change is
Social change is
Causes of social change
- Cultural change
- Conflict
- Demography
- Technology
- ideas
- Social movements
Social patterns resulting from industrialization
the process of social change begun by the industrial revolution
Division of labor
tasks broken up into component parts and allocated reationally to those who have talent and training to do them