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186 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Nuclear Waste Funcionalist
-we need temporary solutions
- Nuclear energy is an effective use of power
Nuclear Waste Concflict
- concern w/ developing unsafe materials
- who is gaining power from this?
Nuclear Waste interactionist
- process of negotiation between stake holders and people who are directly affected
- how the arguments are produced...who is more effective
Nuclear Waste
-Have nukes but no where to put waste
- Yukka mountain
Political/legal changes
- changes in :
political participation
power relationships
(ex: who's in power, how it happened, and type of govt.)
Economic Changes
changes in:
economic indicators
economic activities
composition of sectors
unemplyment rates & rates
of bankrupcy
land & property values
tax revenues
* Significant changes overall
economic indicators
manufacturing/ retail
Demographic/ Ecological Changes
change in:
human migration patterns
population composition
residential patters/ dev.
re dev. & community
Social Structural changes
changes in:
overall social structure
relationships between diff social groups
organizational dev. or demise
social participation in community (ex. civil right movement, black rights, etc.)
Quality of Life/ affect changes
changes in:
attachment residents have in comumunity
life satisfaction
trust (in govt. or military)
Social Change Functionalist
- functions - cooperation
- well integrated society
- change is PREDICTABLE
Social Change Conflict
- power relationships
- tension between groups
- inequality issues
- change takes place ALL the time
- more may benefit than others
Social Change Interactionist
- meaning/ symbols
- how you create meaning through interactons
- how YOU respond to overall structural changes
Social Change
SIGNIFICANT changes in society- impacts everyone in society
(ex: implementing speeding fines in a town that never had them)
Cultural Lag
a gap between material culture & non- material culture when non-material culture is trying to adapt to New Material Culture (ex: advances, cat scans, procedures)
Material Culture
the physical or technological aspects of our daily lives (ex: cars, computers, clothes) we
Non- Material Culture
they way we think about these material objects- regulations and institutions we have in places to deal with material culture issues
the info. on how to use material resources of the environment- to satisfy human needs and desire
Genetic Engineering Funtion
- packaging keeps food longer and more available
- ability to cure hereditary diseases
- perserving quality of life
Genetic Engineering Conflict
- who is profitting?
- are there health considerations or are we just focusing on economy?
- who has better access to these technologies- wealthy?
- ethics - cloning?
Genetic Engineering Interactionist
- who's viewpoint is prevelant
- moral issues/ values
- advancement of science vs.what is right?
- doing some genetic modification and not others
- where do we draw the line?
(ex: movie Gattica)
You could choose not to have these diseases, but if you choose to be susceptible to them than your options in life were restricted
Surveillance/ the internet Function
- security makes us feel safe
- credit card mailing lists boost sales & economy
- useful for finding out information (ex: when buying a house)
Surveillance/ the internet Conflict
- some people are doing the watching and others are ebing watched
- those w/ POWER are doing the watching
- sensorship issues: too much info. vs. limiting info. to certain people
Surveillance/ the internet Interactionist
- how convincing both sides of the arguments are
- what symbols are ppl using to get their meaning across?
- Internet- increases personal interaction (ex: e-mail, facebook)
Rural India Movement
- textile workers went back to their rural towns with their learned skills and wanted to make improvements
- 3 diff. ways to interpret movement
Relative Deprivation- India
Inequities for women and oppressed ppl of lower castes; provide draught relief
Resource Moblization-India
mobilize large numbers of unemployed in rural villages: make use of mid-class leadership
New Social Movements- INDia
connect movement to larger IDEALOGICAL ISSUES- related to lack of power in rural areas, the caste system and social justice
Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement
- movement to be accepted
- many in this movement were in others as well so they had knowledge to be effective, and organize
Relative Deprivation - GLR
Deprived of medical benefits, right to marry, parental rights, and freedom from descrimination
Resource Mobilization- GLR
Experience in early gay rights groups and other social movements gave them organizing ability
New Social Movements- GLR
-support of those who "come out" and be proud of their identity & challenge social norms
Environmentally dangerous installations
- more likely to be put in poor communities
- black & hispanic communities
Native American Reservations
- nuclear waste dump sites
- no regulations against it
- promises to bring money to reservations
Way to distrubute Risks
-Not random/ by chance
- not equally shouldered- some at greater risk
- socially distributed so some are at more risk than others
Environmental Racism
- tendancy to keep environmental dangers on disadvantaged and minorities
Environmental Justice
- legal strategy used to deal with environmental issues- that minorities are more subject to them
Race independant of class in:
- dist. of air pollution
- contaminated fish consump.
- location of landfills
- toxic waste dumps
- lack clean up efforts
- lead poisoning in children
Super fund sites
programs that carry out EPA solid waste emergency and long term removla
In Families earning less than $6000 a year:
-68% of black children w/ lead poisoning vs. 36% white children
In families with annual incomes exceeding $15K
more than 38% black children w/ lead poisoning vs. 12% white children
When Income was held constant:
black children 2 to 3 times more likely to have lead poisoning
Lead poisoning example
shows that racial stratification still exists- class issue
Other Environmental Concerns
- pollution worldwide
- what we do with garbadge
- Global Warming and sea-level rises
(Comparing countries risk dist.)
(make sense of problems and how to deal with them)
why is the environment a concern for sociologists?
modern tech. and industry compared to social institutions
Social construction of Environmental Problems:
- social probs. don't emerge spontaneously
- they are contested phenomena
- depend on supporters and detractors to make the public aware of them
Claims makers
how they present their arguments and are heard
Social Causes of impacts to environment
interplay between physical and social landscape
Consequences of environmental impacts
are socially distributed
(ex: dependancy theory, poor countries are dependant)
Computer Goods -Functionalist
-Passing on equipment that may still be useable
-"bridging the digital divide"
- gets rid of things we dont want here (environmental waste)
- treaty- we should protect the earth because it is our home
Computer goods -Conflict
- not really advancing these countries
- using them as dump site
- power difference: US wont sign treaty
Computer Goods- symbolic interactionist
- Americans feel good for "donating" computers
- focuses on claimsmaker
- who is benefitting? Who's making claims? Who is better?
Dumping in Dixie
Robert Bullard
- environmental rascism
- focused on African- Amer.
- moving communities to try and get away from waste
- communities dont have a strong poilitical voice- they can't fight back
Spatial location
of waste sites in Houston
1st US lawsuit
charged discrimination in a waste facility under the civil rights act
neighborhoods were
economically and politically vaunerable
Locally Unwanted Land Uses
Norwood Manner in Houston
predominantely black middle class
the residentail character of neighborhood
est. before the trash is brought in
Not In My Back Yard
- need to put waste somewhere, but not in our backyards
Place In Black's Back Yard
- that is where the wast goes
Collective Behavior
social behavior where usual conventions fail to guide social actions
People collectively
trancend, bypass, or subvert established intstitutional patterns and structures
- Groups of people
collective Behavior (contnd.)
- mixture of spontaneous and organized action
- level of organization
- people are bypassing social conventions and developing new ways to behave together
- GROUPS of people
- how people make sense of a situation
Ex. of collective behavior
Flight 93 - everyone knew what was happening and worked together
-temporary gathering
- close proximity
- share a common focus or INTEREST
- has diff elements
- PERMEABLE boundaries of crowd- it changes and so does dynamice
looking at reactions of people around you
(ex: fire alarm goes off - see what other ppl are doing around u- how they are reacting)
One or two individuals react to situation
looking at reactions of people around you
(ex: fire alarm goes off - see what other ppl are doing around u- how they are reacting)
Emergent Norm Model
NEW norms develop in NEW conditions
- reflect shared convictions shared by members and enforced through sanctions
- actual behavior or way of acting in a new situation (ex: looting or rioting)- becomes acceptable, everyone is doing it- norms dev.
Emergent Norm- Immigrants
- norm for ppl to hire illegal immigrants
- boycotts, marches, imm. demonstrate their importance to the economy
- they spend $, new spanish anthem, legal immigrants have prob. with them
Value- Added Model
Structural strains and generalized beliefs help to mobilize ppl for action
Smelser's determinants
-structural condusiveness
- structural strain
- generalized belief
- preciptating factor
- ready to mobilize into action
- control is exercised
structural condusiveness
a group facilitates competing interests/ different opinions
- Key Event, precipitating factor, or event to spark collective behavior
Immigrant- Structural Condisiveness
-Immigrants are seen as lower
- they compete with amer. lower class for jobs
- they eat up welfare
Structural Strain
- AWARE of competing interests
(ex: beating of a black man on TV by cops)- significant event- causes group to take ACTION
Generalized Belief
- A shared view of reality redefines social action and guides behavior
Precipitating factor
The event which sparks group behavior
(ex: Bill making illegal immigrants felons - sparked rallies)
A Group Ready to Mobilize into Action
- community based orgs, existing immigrants rights groups
Immigrants- A Group Ready to Mobilize into Action
- needed multiple voices, ban together and make us realize their importance
Manner in which Control is exercised
- How authorities react
(ex: immigrant rallies peaceful, authorities unable to do anything)
Assembling Perspective
Social events follow PREDICTABLE patterns of social behavior
People gather at points
Periodically, or non- periodic events- info. about the event is tansmitted in a casual way (word of mouth)
(ex: tickets for baseball game are schedualed)
(ex: vigils- not schedualed or regularly occuring)
Immigrants- Assembling Perspective
-Immigrants PLANNED boycotts- rallies not a regualr occurance- standard & predicatble
Interaction between Spectators
watch/ not watch- join/ not join
Social Movements
Organized collective activities to bring about or resist fundamental change
Change = KEY factor
(ex: civil rights movement)
- steps outside of TRADITIONAL CHANNELS in order to change social policy
Movement types
personal transformation movements
- changing the individual
(ex: religious movements, new ageism (crystals, meditation))
legal ways to change things - govt. funding- Institutionalized
not so legal- rejects insititutions
(ex: greenpeace)
Social Change Movements
- norm or value focused (both)
- reform or radical
- broader society change
(ex: gay rights, animal rights)
- might want to return to a previous way of life
- want to change values
- alliances between groups may accomplish more
an idea of how things should be done
unties diff. groups of people
- value issues
- social inequality
- prosperity
pride and identity issues
- flag, anthem
reactionary movements
- try to resist change
- backlash against new vaules
- bring about change in reaction to whats going on
(ex: pro-life movement in reaction to abortions)
- go back to the way things were (abortions bad and hard to get)
Relative deprivation 1
feeling that they have a right to their goals
(ex: based on their contributions, immigrants feel they have a right to stay)
Relative deprivation 2
shared percption that members can cause change
- should be able to have those goals
(ex: immigrants thought that they could rally for change to reach their goals)
Relative deprivation 3
People don't need to feel deprived in order to act
(ex: legal immigrants also stood up for illegal ones even though they werent illegal)
Relative Deprivation 4
a negative discrepancy between legitamite expectations and present actualities
(ex: original boycotts not very sucessful- need more measures to chnage legislation)
Immigrant relative deprivation
dont have a voice in congress- want voices heard but dont have one
- what they want vs. waht they have access to
Resource Mobilization
-UTILIZES RESOURCES like money, political influence, access to the media, and personnel
- Acess, and ability to mobilize is key
- organizational base and continuity of leadership
The success of social movements depends on
which resources are avialable and how effectively they are used
Immigrant resource mobilization
- no continuity of leadership
- acess to resources was limited except they had a lot of personnel
- tried to gain help in higher places
- can't SUSTAIN a push for change, just daily rallies
NEW social movements
- organized activities that adress values and social inequalities & improvements to quality of life
- govt. not an ally
- many are global movements (cover many issues)
Social movements arise when:
People are motivated by value issues and social identity questions
Disaster myth 1
that its a result of physical events and leaves everyone in its path equally vaulnerable
Disaster Truth 1
- social events that leave some groups more vaulnerable than others
- some believe its fate- left up to god
- some cultures believe it is going to happen because of the decisions they make
-1995 Heat wave chicago
- social isolation occured- african american men
- 1/3 bodies left unclaimed
- income- access to materials to improve situation
- language-could ppl understand warnings?
- thought it was safer to stay indoors than sleep out in cooler parks
disaster myth 2
The response and help will come solet from heroes
(ex: Pierce Brosnan)
Disaster Truth 2
There is a multiorganizational response, everyone helps
Disaster Myth 3
Widespread role abandonment by emergency responders
Disaster Truth 3
- usually no role abandonment expecially when they know their family is safe- stick to roles
Disaster Myth 4
Widespreas panic, looting, and anti-social behavior
Disaster Truth 4
Panic and looting are rare in disasters
exceptions = if building escape is quickly closing
(ex: nightclub fire)
- difficult for ppl to leave others behind and not help
- pro- social behavior
- crime rates decrease
Disaster Myth 5
send any assistance- all help is necessary
Disaster Truth 5
- innapropriate materials are not helpful
(ex: truckload of pumpkins)
- money is the most help, but convergence of materials is also good
the influx of ppl, resources, and info. into a disaster zone
- money can use where needed - can buy local goods
Fritz and Mathewson
3 types of convergence:
People, curious, ?
People Convergence
-returnees- people coming back to area
-Anxious- people looking for missing loved ones
- helpers- fire, police, govt. volunteers, outside help
Outside help
- problem: might not know what to be doing- order confusion- might get in way
Curious Convergence
- celebs, media, politicians
- cause distractions
- exploiters- sell shirts,etc
- supporters- show support
- mourners & memorializers
Disaster Myth 6
Response is soely responsibility of govt.
Disaster Truth 6
- help comes from many people and organizations
- DRC typology
DRC typology
Quarantelli & Dynes
- Organizational Structures
strucure does change- does the same thing
- do things the same pre and post disaster, but the structure of organization expands to fit disaster
(ex: Red Cross)
Same structure in Place but new purpose
(ex: buke courriers hand out coffee)
(school used as shelter)
- new tasks, activities, and organizational structures
(ex: charities that develop after the disaster: search and rescue: bucket brigades)
Disaster Myth 7
Centralized decision making and response is always appropriate- hierarchical structure
Disaster Truth 7
disasters necessitate decentralized decision making structures and networks
- order in the chaos
Command and Control incorrectly assumes:
- govt. only responder
- info. from outside official channels is innacurate
- role abandonment
- "sticking to the plan" will always work
- citizens are passive and irrational
- there will be a mass panic
- flexibility is counter productive- only formal orgs.
planning and improvisation
-very important
- balance between things in place & things that negotiate with order
(ex: 9/11 emergency work pods)
resource or facility
- plan is in place
- original plan was appropriate
- plan can't be carried out (facility destroyed)
- work to reproduce the facility that was there before
Credentialing system Badges Example
- plan in place- badges
- doesn't matter if plan cant be carried out
- plan deemed no longer appropriate- need new ones
- created changes to badges based on new needs
Functionalist Environmental Sociology
- human ecology: interrelationships between humans and their environment
- Dunlap
Conflict - Environmental Sociology
- WEstern intducstrialized nations- consumers
- less afflunet nations have to exploit their resources to pay off debt
Consumption Rates
-Us is 5 % of world population
- consumes more than 50% of world's nonrenewable resources
- 33% of all raw materials
Love Canal
-the clean upper- mid class white neighboorhoood "love"
- the state came in and dumped toxic waste in canal
- controversey
same scenerio as "Love" but it didn't have the same controversy attention because it was a poor black neighborhood
Thomas Robert Malthas **
- late 1700's
- population is growing more rapidly than the food supply
- Essays on the principles of Population 1798
- thought population increases had to do with capitalism and economy
- capitalism made tools, if society were well ordered, then population growth would lead to wealth
Life expectancy
Japan highest- 81 %
Mozambique lowest- 33.5 %
World Average- 66.8 %
U.S. - 77.2 %
Demographic Transition Stage 1
Pretransition Stage
Demographic Transition Stage 2
Transition stage
-Period of rapid population growth
Demographic Transition Stage 3
Posttransition Stage
Apartheid **
South Africa's system of segregation- Separate blacks and other non- whites from Whites
Suburbanization **
1980-1990- population growth in suburbia 14 %
- total Us population rose by 10 %
Sunning of America **
-migration to the "sun belt" south and west states
- absorbed almost 2/3 population
- less expensive
Rural Life Rebound **
migration to non-metropolitan rural areas in 1990's
- by 1998 had spread out and rebirth to suburbs again
Birthrate **
-crude birthrate
- number of live births per 1,000 pop. in a given year
Census **
a counting of the population
Death Rate **
- crude death rate
the number of deaths per 1,000 pop. in a given year
Demographic Transition **
the change from high birthrates and death rates to low ones
Demography **
the scientific study of population
Growth Rate **
The difference between births and deaths plus the difference between immigrants and emmigranst per 1,000 pop.
Infant mortality rate **
number of deaths of infants under one year old per 1,000 live births a year
Life expectancy **
the median number of years expected to live under current mortality conditions
Migration **
movement of ppl with the purpose of changing their residence
Population Pyramid **
bar chart that shows the distribution of pop. by gender and age
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)**
average #of children born alive to any woman, assuming she conforms to current fertility rates
Vital stats **
records of births, deaths, marriages, and divorces gathered through a registration system
Zero Pop. growth (ZPG)**
when the pop. where the # of births plus immigrants = the # of deaths plus immigrants
an exciting mass involvement that lasts for a long time
a temporary gathering of ppl in close proximity who share a common focus or interest
disaster **
A sudden or disruptive event that overtaxes a community's resources so that outside aid is necessary
fad **
a temporary pattern of behavior with large numbers of ppl and is independant of preceding trends
False conciousness**
- Karl Marx
- attitude held by members of a class that doesn't actually reflect their objective position
A pleasureable mass involvement that has a line of historical conitnuity
A fearful arousal or collective flight based on a general belief that may or may not be accurate
reoccuring, routine
non- periodic
non- reoccuring- results from word of mouth
a dispersed group of ppl who share an interest or issue
public opinion
expressions of attitudes on matters of public policy
a piece of info. gathered informally and used to interpret an ambigous situation
language on internet
1996- english 80%
2005- English 27%
Chinese 20%
Internet Access
56.2 %- Asian American adults
46.1 %- White American Adults
-more asain adults, but more White children
evolutionary theory of society
believed society was moving towards a higher state
- functionalist theory
- society in a natural state of equilibrium/ balance
equilibrium model
- functionalist view that society tends toward a state of balance
- 19th century England
- rebellious craft workers who destroyed new factory machinery
Multilinear evolutionary theory
- theory of social change that states change can occur in many ways and does not always lead in the same direction
normal accident
a failure that is inevitable
info. about how to use the material resources to satisfy human needs
Unilinear evolutionary theory
all societies pass through the same successive stages of evolution and reach the same end
Vested interests
ppl or groups that will suffer in the event of social change & who have a stake in maintaining the staus quo