Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/101

Click to flip

101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
According to the _______ theory of deviance, social control works for the powerful and against the powerless.
conflict
According to the lecture, the primary focus of the _________ theory of deviance is explaining why people do not engage in deviant behavior.
control
According to the lecture, persons of low socioeconomic status ________ persons of high socioeconomic status.
are twice as likely to have health problems as
According to the lecture, those who argue that poverty is situational view welfare as:
humanitarian relief
According to Max Weber, _______ is a key factor that both varies with and is influenced by one's social group.
prestige
___________ argued that an industrial reserve army of labor consisting of individuals at the bottoms of the class structure is essential of capitalist economies.
Karl Marx
According to the lecture, research on white racial attitudes show that ___________ is the principle of racial equality, _______ policies that would ensure racial equality.
whites increasingly support / but in recent years have changed little in their support for
According to the lecture on racial attitudes, whites and blacks tend to mostly ________ in their attitudes regarding affirmative action. The primary area of disagreement is that __________.
agree / blacks support preference, white do not
The "declining significance of race" thesis is the idea that _______ has become less important than __________ in influencing the life changes of African Americans.
racial discrimination / social class
According to the lecture, the power of A over B is a function of B's dependency on A. The amount of power A can exercise over B is strongly affected by two factors, one of which is:
how much desire B has for the resource controlled by A
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of performances that was discussed in the lecture:
reflected appraisal
Which of the following is NOT a style of leadership discussed in lecture:
instrumental
TRUE or FALSE: According to the lecture on Goffman, teams are sets of individuals who try to maintain the same impression to other team members as they do to the audience.
False
TRUE or FALSE: According to the text, Parkinson's Law is the principle that states that work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion.
True
According to the text, a primary group is:
two or more people who enjoy a direct, intimate, and cohesive relationship
According to the text, ____________ are rules that define what is appropriate for people to be and to do at various ages.
age norms
The definition given in the text for _______ is "the painless putting to death of an individual who suffers from an incurable and painful disease".
euthanasia
TRUE or FALSE: According to the lecture, impression management is the process whereby leaders of large organizations manage the impressions that workers have of their work environment.
False
TRUE or FALSE: In Why Bureaucracy?, Charles Perrow characterizes bureaucracy as an economic tool that decentralizes power in society for the benefit of the wider population.
false
According to the text, ____________ is a variable that is affected by another variable.
a dependent variable
TRUE or FALSE: The term, Self-conception, refers to a temporary self-definition that changes as people move through different social contexts.
False
According to the account of George Herbert Mead's theory presenred in the textbook and in lectures, the three stages a child typically passes through are:
Play, Game, generalized other
In the _______ stage of the life course, socialization tasks revolve around work and love.
young adult
Tim is 19, entered college in 2002. He dresses in tie-dye, etc....For Tim, 1960s hippies are his:
reference group
TRUE or FALSE: According to the text, as German sociologist Georg Simmel suggested, adding one person to a dyad is far more consequential than adding one person to a group.
True
According to the text, a leader who adopts a passive and uninvolved stance and provides suggestions, materials, and help only upon request is using the ________ style of leadership.
laissez-faire
According to the text, a ____________ is a place of residence where individuals are isolated from the rest of society and where behavior is tightly regimented. Recruits first have to go through a resocialization process where old identities and roles are removed and replaced with new ones. This process is called ________.
total institution / mortification
According to the textbook, __________ argue that organizations are not the product of their rules, but that people use the rules to explain and justify what they do in organizational contexts.
ethnomethodologists
According to the lecture, one way to think about _______ is that it is the "rules of the game".
culture
"If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences." This is a statement of the:
Thomas theorem
According to the lecture, ____________ is the process of social interaction by which people acquire knowledge, values, attitudes, and behaviors.
socialization
TRUE or FALSE: According to text and lecture, a person's self-concept is the product of individual subjective processes and is not accted by social processes.
False
According to the text and lecture, Charles Horton Cooley's ___________ is a process by which we imaginatively assume the stance of other people and view ourselves as we believe they see us.
"looking-glass self"
In Presentation of Self, Goffman argues that social interaction is sometimes a kind of information game - a potentially infinite cycle of concealment, discovery, false revelation, and rediscovery. This occurs because people often attempt to control:
exressions given off, and others know this
TRUE or FALSE: According to the text, relative deprivation increases if the rate of social loafing in a society increases over time.
False
According to the text _____________ involves a decision-making process in which consensus overrides the individual's critical faculties, whereas __________ is a phenomenon in which individuals work less hard when placed in a group than they do when they are on their own.
groupthink / social loafing
According to the lecture and text, __________ is a concept that can take on different values.
a variable
According to the lecture, _________ is the scientific study of social interaction and social organization.
Sociology
TRUE or FALSE: According the lecture, if we observe that when X is present, Y changes, we can conclude that X is the cause of the change in Y.
False
In the article, "Society and Illusion", Collins and Makowsky discern between values and facts. They suggest that valid knowledge is only possible if ___________.
we uphold the ideal of intellectual objectivity in assessing theory.
According to the lecture, Max Weber popularized the concept ________.
Charisma
Reggae music, dreadlocks, tuxedoes, aand BMWs are examples of what?
material culture
Social Structure is the _________.
recurrent and stable pattern of people's interactions and relationships.
According to the text, ________ refers to the social heritage of a population and learned patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting.
culture
According to the lecture, a ______ is a number of roles associated with a single status.
role set
According to the lecture, a ________ is a position in a social structure.
status
According to the lecture and text, a subculture that is at odds with the ways of a larger society is known as:
counterculture
According to the lecture, display of the US flag and the rituals surrounding its display are examples of:
expressive symbolism
According to the lecture, _______ involves judging other cultures by the standards of one's own culture.
ethnocentrism
According to the lecture, the views that culture is that basis for social structure is most compatible with:
in interactionist perpective
The article by Ryan, Calhoun, and Wentworth in "Readings in Sociology" had to do with forms of emotional expressiveness by female and male performers in rap and country music. In terms of the emotional themes expressed in their music, which category of performers was found to be relatively high in caring and love and low in competense and strength?
male country artists
According to the textbook, Elliot Liebow's study of a Washington DC neighborhood is an example of:
microsociology
Which of the following theorists suggested the evolutionary concept of the survivial of the fittest applied also to the social realm?
Herbert Spencer
This theorist, who many consider an economic determinist, wrote about the inequality that arises in capitalist societies between those who own the means of producing wealth and those who do not:
Karl Marx
________suggests that mass culture controls and suppresses people's perceptions; therefore, possible changing the way people perceive inequality in society.
Critical theory
When the GM plant in Flint, Michigan closed, thousands of people lost their jobs. According to functionalism, the rise in crime and poverty that occured after the plant closing can be seen as an example of:
a dysfunction
Head nods, hand gestures, and stop signs can be forms of communication. What sociological perspective emphasizes and elaborates on this idea?
symbolic interactionism
According to the lecture, ______ is a status that carries primary weight and overshadows other statuses.
master status
According to the lecture, folkways are _________.
norms governing everyday life
According to the lecture, a _______ situation is one in which a person subjectively takes account of another person or persons.
social
TRUE or FALSE: According to the lecture, what counts as diviance behavior varies by social status, group, and the nature of the social situation.
true
According to the functionalist perspective, the state performs four primary functions in every society: enforcement of norms, protection against other societies, planning and direction, and:
arbitration of conflicting interests
According to the lecture, which of the following COULD NOT BE TRUE according to the lectures on deviant behavior?
Labeling theory argues that the higher one's social status the more likely one is to be labeled diviant.
TRUE or FALSE: According to the lecture, one of the functions of diviance is that it promotes distrust.
False
The wealthiest 1/5 of US families owns appox. ________ of the privately held wealth in the country.
80%
A young boy was raised in NC and lived as a white person in the comm. When 11, he went to live with father's family where we found his grandmother to be black. Overnight, he was considered black. This is:
race is a social construct
The primary differentiatine ethnic groups from each other is _______.
their distinctive cultural characteristics.
Research disscussed in class indicates that a good estimate for the percentage of women raped in their lifetimes is:
between 20% and 25%
TRUE or FALSE: According to research presented in lecture, women who report being raped are more likely to say that they were raped by their spouce or someone they were in love with than to say that a stranger raped them.
TRUE
TRUE or FALSE: In families consisting of a married couple and children where both husband and wife are full-time labor force participants, on the average workday, husbands and wives spend approx equal time taking care of children.
FALSE
According to the _______ perspective on power, major political decisions affecting citizens are made by a small number of people who are unified in purpose and outlook because of their similar social backgrounds, their dominant positions in key social institutions, and the convergence of their economic interests.
elitist
TRUE or FALSE: In families consisting of a married couple and children where both husband and wife are full-time labor force participants, on the average workday, husbands and wives spend approx equal time taking care of children.
FALSE
Under a system of rational-legal authority, people obey those with authority because:
they believe that policies and orders are in accord with rules to which they subscribe, and because they agree with the overall goals and purposes of the system.
According to the lecture, ________ is "a political institution that has a monopoly on the legitimate use of force".
the state
TRUE or FALSE: According to the data presented in class, women receive lower wages and saleries than men because, on average, women get less education than men.
FALSE
According to the text, gambling, use of illicit drugs, and prohibited sexual relations between consenting adults are examples of:
victimless crime
According to the text, ________ theory suggests social inequality exists because it is beneficial for society.
functionalist
Data presentedin class showed that men report higher numbers of sex partners than women do, a higher incidence of committing adultry than women do, and more evidence of having sex with persons they do not know well than women do. According to the lecture, these findings are consistant with _________ of gender differences in sexual behavior.
both socialization explanation and the evolutionary psychology explanation
According to the text, some behavior violates norms but usually goes unnoticed by agents of social control. According to labeling theory, this form of deviance is termed _________ deviance.
primary
"Which group will be able to translate its values into the rules of a society and make these rules stick?" Which theory attempts, above all, to answer this question?
conflict theory
According to Merton's anomie theory, which of the modes of adaptation involves acceptance of cultural goals and rejection of institutionalized means?
innovation
A person graduates from college after getting very good grades. The person then goes to law school and graduates. After passing the bar exam, the person accepts entry-level position at firm. The person is increasingly successful, becomes a partner, and eventually is wide known a defense attorney. Accordind to the text, this would be an example of:
intragenerational mobility
TRUE or FALSE: According to the text, social class affects an individual's life chances, yet has no bearing on his or her style of life.
FALSE
According to the text, a _________ stratification system is a social arrangement in which people have great difficulty changing their status.
closed
According to the text, which sociological perspective suggests that ethnic groups are socially constructed from the meanings we attach to people, objects, and event?
interactionist
According to the text, __________ have the highest median income of the nation's ethnic groups.
Asian Americans
During WWII, Hitler systematically and deliberately attempted to exterminate all Jews. This is:
genocide
According to the text, ________ is an act where one or more groups within society are denied privileges, prestige, power, or legal rights that are available to other groups.
discrimination
TRUE or FALSE: According to the text, gender refers to the genetic makeup of individuals as male or female, while sex refers to socio-cultural distinction between men and women.
FALSE
According to the text, sociologists have suggested that two factors, _________, combine to powerfully influence the prevalence of rape and sexual aggression on college campuses and other situations.
culture (of masculinity) and gender inequality
TRUE or FALSE: According to the text, the women's movement, while very prevalent, has had very little effect on the way Americans think and act.
FALSE
According to the text, which of the following theories suggest that gender identities and behaviors are acquired through socialization beginning in infancy?
culutal transmission theory
According to the text, the Soviet Union, as it developed after the death of Stalin, is an example of what type of government?
authoritarianism
According to the text, a ___________ is an organization created with the intent of gaining control of the government by placing its own people in public office.
political party
A government that directly controls the economy is called a:
socialist economy
A market dominated by a few firms is referred to as:
an oligopoly
In his article in Readings in Sociology, Chambliss argues that because of the community's reaction to one group of adolescent boys, memebers of the group ended up having criminal records and low paying jobs. The name of the group was
the roughnecks
According to Rossi & Wright, high levels of homelessness are associated with 1) extreme poverty, 2) people who do not have families, 3):
a declining number of inexpensive dwelling places for single persons
TRUE or FALSE: According to Hughes and Thomas's article, racial disparities in quality of life can be explained by socioeconomic status.
FALSE
The "double disadvantage" that is the main focus of Paula England's article is that women are disadvantaged in both:
in paid jobs and in the family
In his article, Kerbo argues that studies of relations among large corporations have uncovered a number of cliques amoung corporations. At the center of these corporations cliques, _______ usually found.
banks are