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65 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Which of the major proponents of instinctual theories presented the idea that religiousness is caused by a blend of four instincts?
William McDougall
What is the definition of "instinct"?
without having been learned.
In reference to explaining human instincts what did William McDougall propose?
18 different instincts
DNA is produced from where?
chromosomes, sperm
When Joe looks at Julie, he sees a woman about 5’10" tall, 160 pounds, with red hair. When Joe looks at Julie what he is seeing the finished product which is referred to as what.
A ____ is only genetic, while a ___ both genetic and environmental influences.
genotype; phenotype
If two brown-eyed parents have a blue-eyed child, this shows what two probable genetic characteristic or outcome.
the child must have been adopted; a person's genetic inheritance is not always reflected in her or his physical body.
An identical twin is called ___ while a fraternal twin is called ___
monozygote; dizygote
In studies comparing children adopted at birth with their biological parents and with their adoptive parents, in regard to alcoholism what was suggested?
alcoholism is genetically determined; alcoholism has an environmental component.
In modem nations, most people a hundred years ago reached their full adult height at what stage of their life?
at an older age
According to the author of your text, what is the "right" question to ask about shifts in height in modem nations over the past several decades?
what kept humans so small and delayed up their maturation for so long?
How Estrogens is are produced?
Produced by the ovaries
The effects of which set of abused drugs led researcher to look into the behavioral effects of testosterone?
Anabolic Steroids
On average, males with high testosterone levels are less likely than other men to what?
get married.
The process by which infants are made into normal human beings who possess culture and the ability to engage in social relationships is called?
Skeels and Dye did a studied on orphanage-raised children who had been severely neglected. Give a description of these children's IQs and their abilities to progress in school?
had abnormally low IQs and usually did not progress beyond the third grade.
What the findings/conclusions of the Skeels and Dye study?
Isolation suppresses development
In stimulus-response (S-R) theory, how do humans learn.
Learned responses to external stimuli
What does Stimulus-response (S-R) theory proposes.
It proposes a simple model of learning where humans play a passive role.
How did Jean Piaget, first began to develop his ideas about cognitive structures?
watching children give similar, but incorrect, answers to given IQ test questions.
According to Jean Piaget, what does the normal cognitive development consist of?
Basic rules of reasoning; stages: semsorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational.
Freda's 6 month old baby girl is fascinated by a toy key chain. When Freda hides it, the baby does not look for it, but now focuses her attention on a Gumby instead. According to Piaget, this baby has not yet learned which stage of development?
Still in sensorimotor stage but not learned Rule of Object Permanence
What is learned in the sensorimotor stage?
Discover and develop their senses and motor skills
At what age does the preoperational stage begin?
Age 2 and ends around 7
At what stage is abstract thinking learned?
In the formal operational stage around 12
Up to half of all people never reach this stage of cognitive development
Formal operational
If someone is unable to do such things as reason from hypothetical situations that do not exist in the real world, or formulate and draw deductions from abstract theories, they have not yet reached which stage of development
Formal operational
Something scientists used to believe early in the 20th century but which they have now largely rejected.
Attributed much human behavior to instincts
When children are exposed to adults speaking to them in ___ , they inject grammar into it and create a new ___
pidgin; creole
A consistent pattern of thoughts, feelings, and actions is what?
Who taught the principle of Cultural Determinism.
Franz Boas
According to Franz Boas and his disciples, what effect does culture have on people?
It shapes their personalities; personalities are tiny replicas of the overall cultures
What does strict cultural determinism teach?
There is direct and everlasting link between early childhood socialization and adult personality
According to the text would you say that children are raised the in the same way in all societies?
Would it be a true statement to say, "All societies have differentially socialized people on the basis of sex"?
In Melvin Kohn's initial survey of child rearing values, what values rated as equally important by both middle-and working-class parents?
Among working-class parents studied by Melvin Kohn's initial survey of child rearing values, the emphasis given values related to children's ___ was greater than the emphasis given values related to children's ___
conforming to the expectations of others; self-expression and independence
People can suffer negative social consequences for properly carrying out roles when they are
performing deviant roles.
When we fail to conform to norms, this is always a form of
The concept of ___ includes ___ .
deviance; all norm violations.
According to Gottfredson and Hirschi for something to be a "crime" it must
be undertaken in the pursuit of self-interest.
In the United States, burglaries are highest in
Sunbelt states.
The majority of criminal acts by offenders in what fashion?
What is the most preferred target of robbers in the United States
Low-income people on the streets near the robber’s residence
Where do robberies usually occur?
On the street
A person is robbed while walking down the street. If this is a typical street robbery how much money did the victim loose?
Under $50
What targets does a robber normally choose, does the robber usually use a weapon, what is the usual sex of the robber, and do the robbers normally have a police record for other crimes?
Gun or knife; male under 25; rap sheet of various offenses.
What is the amount of money that the average burglar actually makes from the typical act of burglary?
What is the mode of operation used by most burglars before committing the act?
Rings the bell than tries the door; only 1/3 actually use forced entry
Are homicides in the United States much less likely to be closed by arrest today than they were thirty years ago?
Define and understand what offender versatility means, and be able to recognize an example of same.
Most criminals commit a myriad of criminal offenses and few specialize
How much planning and effort is involved in committing the typical criminal act in the United States?
According to our text (chapter 8) prisons exist due to what specific reason?
Be a more humane form of punishment; Deter deviance; reform offenders
Society has two types of controls in place to control crime. Are there more formal or informal controls in place?
What roles are associated with formal social controls?
Police, courts, psychiatrists, prisons, mental hospitals, collection agencies
The more intensely any group or society applies informal and formal efforts to suppressing deviance, the less deviance there will be.
deviance is very costly, these costs are not limited to the funds for formal methods but cost also, include a substantial price in terms of restrictions on personal choices and freedom
Opportunity theory points out that there has been a substantial rise in household burglaries since World War II partially due to what major event?
Increase in female employment
What effects if any does the rise in the unemployment rates have on burglar?
More adults are home to protect their belongings
According to your text one factor that have more of an influence on our children than parenting when referring to delinquency is what?
Deterrence / punishment
Why was capital punishment prohibited by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1972?
It was applies in a discriminatory fashion
Prior to the 1970's did social scientist accept or disagree against the argument that capital punishment did not deter the crimes for which was used in?
Summarize the three main factors which must occur according to Jack Gibbs to lower the rate in crime.
The higher the cost and the swifter and more certain it is to be imposed the greater the conformity.
Does punishment in the United States usually meet the minimum requirements of deterrence theory to be effective in reducing crime?
No, it is far from certain and swift
Jack Gibbs found that people are more likely to re-offend following imprisonment for the crime of ___ than for the crime of ____
rape; burglary
What crime is most often reported to the police if it occurs?
Auto theft