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66 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the main idea in Yi-Fu Tuan's "Moral Edifice"?
The environment affects culture and the culture affects education.
How is education implemented in simple societies?
Through daily life.
What is moral edifice?
A structure of moral beliefs determined by environment, literacy, religion, means of survival and other cultural beliefs.
What is one thing that all 3 groups had in common? (Pygmie's-Mbuti, Eskimo, Hopi-Pueblo)
They were all non-literate so they used oral culture.
How do the groups explain things that they cannot control?
What is the main idea in Eliot Eisner's "The Three Curricula That All Schools Teach"?
Schools teach things implicitly that they do not intend to teach.
"Perhaps the greatest of all pedagogical fallacies is the notion that a person learns only the particular thing he is studying at the time."
John Dewey
What do school NOT teach?
The intellectual processes that schools emphasize and neglect. As well as the content or subject areas that are present and absent in school curricula.
What are the explicit goals that schools hold?
Teaching children to read and write, to figure, and to learn something about the history of the country around them.
What are the implicit goals that schools hold?
Compliant behavior, competitiveness - through athletics or the formal grading process, and can teach a host of intellectual and social virtues.
Why is school architecture and school furniture set in a certain way?
Show that teachers are the authority figure, give students the sense they are always being watched, power struggle between students and teachers. (For easy maintenance, is uncomfortable, and is visually sterile)
Who taught Plato & Aristotle?
Why didn't Socrates write down any of his teachings?
He was always questioning himself.
"The only thing I truly know is that I know nothing."
In Plato's Meno why is it written in dialogue?
You can worry more about the process instead of the problem.
"If it far better not to know than to be wrong."
What is Meno's paradox?
If you kow what something is then you do not need to search for it --but if you do not know what it is then you do not know what you are looking for.
What is the difference between knowledge & true opinion?
The man who has knowledge will always succeed, whereas he who has true opinion will only succeed at times.
What is the point of Socrates' line metaphor?
To teach his basic views about the 4 levels of existence.
When we look at something what 2 things do we see?
The image of the object and the object.
In the line metaphor the line is broken into 4, what does each section represent?
The bottom 2 represent our visible realm while the top 2 represent our access to the intelligible.
According to Plato what is the lowest grade of cognitive activity?
"In any case, you have two types of thing, visible and intelligible."
What is the first step in understanding something?
Defining it
What does Plato's cave metaphor represent?
Ignorance and knowledge
What do the shadows in Plato's cave represent?
How normal people see things -- as images while a philosopher would be a person that would escape the cave and learns to see objects as what they really are.
Who believed that all individuals were born tabula rase?
John Locke
Did Socrates believe we were born with knowledge or that we acquired it?
He believed that we born knowing everything and that we are simply recalling knowledge.
What are the 2 things that we are born knowing?
Conception of space and time.
What did Locke think about repetition when teaching children?
Locke did not agree with repetition, he believed that if it is not part of your experience then you are not going to learn it and it will soon be forgotten.
What did Locke believe was the most important virtue?
Fortitude because without it no other virtues are possible and it keeps you on the right and virtuous path.
Why does Locke believe certain subjects should take precedence over others?
Languages (English, French, Latin, Greek), Geometry, believed music was a waste of time because if you are not constantly practicing you aren't any good.
Why does Locke decide to order his subjects in a certain way?
Becasue they are useful, practical
What was Locke's view of human nature?
He believed in morals, that you should correct children at every turn so that they don't develop bad habits.
What is the main idea in Rosseau's "Emile or A Treatise of Education"?
That the overall purpose of education is to make a child a well-rounded person and a common vocation is humanity.
"All things are good as they come out of the hands of their Creator, but everything degenerates in the hands of man."
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Who believed that you were born good and that society corrupted you?
"The man who has lived most, is not he who hath survived the greatest number of years, but he who has experienced most of life. A man may be buried at a hundred years of age, who died in his cradle."
Jean Jacques Rousseau
What are some typical mistakes that parents make in educating children?
Attempting to give children rules and boundaries, allowing other people to raise their children,.
Why does Rousseau make Emile wealthy and an orphan?
He would be uncorrupted since he is only being raised by his parents and he would be wealthy because poor people didn't have access to an education.
Why does Rousseau believe in having a younger teacher?
It will foster their innate curiosity better and it will allow the student to do what he wants not just what he is told.
What constitutes Rousseau's philosophy of happiness & empowerment and how does it affect education?
So that you find a happy medium -- don't want to desire more than you can have. To achieve great happiness don't desire more than you can get but you want to get what you desire.
Why does Rousseau pick Robinson Crusoe as the only story Emile should need to read?
It is basically a metaphor for the type of education for the type of education he should have.
What is epistemology?
The study of knowledge?
What is objectivism?
The belief that their is only one knowledge, independent of the knower.
(Ex. the world is round)
What is subjectivism?
The belief that there are many knowledges, depends on knower.
What is constructivism/constructionism?
The belief that knowledge is constructed by the culture/individual.
What is ontology?
The philosophical study of existence.
What is realism?
The belief that objects in the world have real existence, external to their perceiver. (Knowing the things you can see fell or touch exist)
What is idealism?
The belief that objects in the world exist only in the minds of the perceiver. (Ex. redness is an idea that we attribute to certain objects in the world)
What kind of views did Socrates hold?
Objectivism --> Idealist
What did both Locke & Rousseau believe?
Objectivism --> Realist
What is empiricism?
The belief that knowledge is acquired through experience.
What is rationalism?
The belief that knowledge is acquired through reason.
What is positivism?
Objective realism.
What is the main idea in John Dewey's "My Pedagogic Creed"?
How socialization needs to be the goal of the schools because so much time is spent in schools that it is like a small society.
What is pragmatism?
The belief that knowledge is only knowledge insofar as it is useful.
What did Dewey believed you needed in order to learn?
Both the mental capacity and the social interaction.
What did Dewey believed had to occur for a child to acquire something as knowledge?
A chils had to put i into practice.
What are the 3 threads that move education along?
Capitalism, Democracy, & Protestantism.
How did Horace Mann convince the people to have a system of education?
He told the rich that the children would be educated as Protestants and they would be able to keep their position in society. While he told the poor immigrants that they surely wanted their children to have a better job than they did
What was the idea that drove the industrial revolution?
The division of labor
What was the industrial revolutions affect on schools?
One teacher, row leaders, division of grades.
If you attacked common schools what else were you attacking?
American ideology which was set from Democracy, Protestantism, & Capitalism.
Why did the idea of vocational institutions fail?
The fields became flooded with skilled workers.
What are 2 factos that greatly effect schools?
Economy & Immigration.