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94 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Two types of autonomy
Emotional-finding emotional strength within oneself Behavioral-making decisions, self government, and looking after oneself.
Keys to encouraging a healthy autonomy
Gradually relinquish control as teenagers display a readiness to accept more responsibility while continuing to monitor conduct and demand more self governance as well. –keep rules and regulations to a reasonable minimum (not overly restrictive or permissive) and explain them. –Continue to be warm and supportive, even in the face of conflict.
Innappropriate Behavior control
Excessive (overly restrictive) –Inadequate (permissive)
Psychological control (Barber’s definition)-
a rather insidious form of control that potentially inhibits or intrudes upon psychological development through manipulation and exploitation of the child bond-love withdrawal, guilt induction, disappointment and shame, excessive personal control, possessiveness, protectiveness.
Constraining verbal expressions
Changing the subject, interrupting, speaking for the other, lecturing, dominating the conversation, ignoring others’ comments, showing disinterest
Invalidating feelings:
–Discounting, misinterpreting, or assigning a value (good/bad, right/wrong) to expressed feelings; mind reading; sarcasm and teasing about feelings
Personal attack
Reminding another of responsibilities to the family, questioning another’s loyalty, bringing up another’s past mistakes or embarrassing behaviors, blaming, being condescending or patronizing
Guilt induction
Laying guilt trips on others, playing the role of the martyr, saying that if others really cared, they would do as you instruct
Love withdrawal
Laying guilt trips on others, playing the role of the martyr, saying that if others really cared, they would do as you instruct
Erratic Emotional Behavior
–Vacillating between caring and attacking expressions—hot and cold
Negative effects of psychological control
Vacillating between caring and attacking expressions—hot and cold , Psychological control has consequences for children of all ages (not just adolescents!)
Psychological control and the development of relational aggression
Comparing and contrasting parent-child dyads
Sibling rivalry
Psychological control has consequences for children of all ages (not just adolescents!)
Psychological control and the development of relational aggression
Comparing and contrasting parent-child dyads
Sibling love
Psychological control has consequences for children of all ages (not just adolescents!)
Psychological control and the development of relational aggression
Comparing and contrasting parent-child dyads
Effects on sibling relationships: Marital Relationship
–Siblings are more likely to get along if their parents do
–Siblings are more likely to get along if their parents do not show favoritism (differential treatment) or engage in costly comparisons
Positive elements of sibling relationships
Serving as an attachment figure
Serving as a haven from peer rejection
Serving as an appropriate model or tutor
Contributing to social-cognitive understandings
Impact of marital relationship on children’s social development
: –Considered to be the best familial predictor of childhood behavioral problems
–Observed mutual hostility in marriage predicts externalizing behavior, especially for boys
–In marriages where husbands are angry and withdrawn in conflict, children have internalizing difficulties
HOWdoes marital conflict impact child outcomes (possible mechanisms)?
–Children may model interparental aggression, believing it is acceptable
–Children may be prone to hostile attributional biases and, accordingly, act more aggressively
–Background anger serves as a family stressor, which negatively impacts all relationships, including those with peers
–Marital conflict undermines parenting and the parent-child relationship, which negatively impacts children’s behavioral regulation
Shaffer summary: Gay and lesbian parenting
–Children raised by homosexual parents are no more likely to be homosexual than those raised by heterosexual parents
–Children of gay and lesbian parents are just as well adjusted as children of heterosexual parents
–Gay and lesbian parents have parenting skills comparable to their heterosexual counterparts
–IN SUM, there is no evidence to warrant any concerns about gay and lesbian parents raising children
Evidence in gay and lesbian parenting
–Homosexual relationships, especially those of gay men, tend to be relatively unstable
18 months to 3 years, non-monogamous for men
5-7 years for lesbian relationships
–These studies suffer from severe methodological flaws and therefore cannot be relied on to inform legislation or legal cases
Inadequate sample sizes which limit statistical power to detect differences
High attrition rates in longitudinal studies
Biased samples (self-selected and interested in putting their best foot forward)
Biased researchers
Inadequate measures of outcomes
–In short, failing to find differences does not mean that differences don’t exist
Immediate Effects of Divorce
–Crisis Period
–Effects on children varies by age, but all children suffer
–Temperamentally difficult children have more difficulties than easygoing children
–Boys manifest their suffering overtly; girls experience covert distress
Long-Term Effects of Divorce
–Most children of divorce seem to adjust and improve with time
–Even well-adjusted children, however, are still very negative about the divorce 20 years after the fact
–Children of divorce fear that they will fail in their own marriages
–Adults whose parents divorced are in fact more likely than adults from intact families to have marital problems and divorce themselves

Easing the burden of divorce: Adequate Financial Support
Long-Term Effects of Divorce
–Most children of divorce seem to adjust and improve with time
–Even well-adjusted children, however, are still very negative about the divorce 20 years after the fact
–Children of divorce fear that they will fail in their own marriages
–Adults whose parents divorced are in fact more likely than adults from intact families to have marital problems and divorce themselves

Easing the burden of divorce: Adequate Financial Support
Adequate Parenting By the Custodial Parent
Social/Emotional Support From the Noncustodial Parent
Extrafamilial Social Support
Minimizing Additional Stresses

Remarriage and blended families: Remarriage is quite common
–A reshuffling of roles
–Increased risk of divorce
–Despite the challenges, many blended families succeed
How children fare in blended families
–Mother/stepfather families
Boys benefit from a stepfather; girls resist
–Father/stepmother families
Stepmother may disrupt close father-child relationships
Stepmothers tend to specialize in monitoring and discipline and may thereby gain a bad reputation
More disruptive for girls who reject the idea of a substitute mother
–Problems of differential treatment
–Older children and adolescents struggle most with blended family relationships and some withdraw and act antisocially
The Gender Double Standard
–According to a 2004 Department of Education report, “Educator Sexual Misconduct: A Synthesis of the Literature,” student surveys reveal that 43% of sex offenders are female
Reporters sometimes trivialize this by taking a “didn‟t-he-get-lucky” tone or sanitizing it with euphemisms
–The Mary Kay Letorneau debacle
–If a man abuses, his gender explains it. If a woman abuses, she has mental health issues and is therefore not really to blame (she just needs to be understood)
Headline: “Murder suspect „was trying her best.””
Draconian Zero-Tolerance Policies
–Middle school students in McMinnville, Oregon designated Fridays as “Slap Butt Day”
Local police arrested a 12-yr-old and a 13-yr-old and charged them with felony sex abuse
–A 15-yr-old male has consensual sex with a 13-yr-old girlfriend
Now as a father of two daughters, he cannot be alone with them due to his lifelong presence on the sex-offender registry
–“If you‟re not overreaching, you‟re going to be accused of underreaching.”
Developmental problems with watching tv
Young children
–have difficulty following a story from beginning to end (coherent story line)
–focus on actions to the exclusion of intent and meaning and may imitate them
–have difficulty separating fact from fiction
Media violence
73% of programs contain violence in which the perpetrator neither displayed remorse nor received any penalty
Violence is rampant in children’s programming, and is often couched in humor
By the time the average child is 18 years old, he or she will witness 200,000 media-portrayed acts of violence, including 40,000 murders
Perspective on media violence
73% of programs contain violence in which the perpetrator neither displayed remorse nor received any penalty
Violence is rampant in children’s programming, and is often couched in humor
By the time the average child is 18 years old, he or she will witness 200,000 media-portrayed acts of violence, including 40,000 murders
Correlational surveys show
– that media violence is positively associated with a child’s exhibited hostility and aggression
 How about relational aggression? (Beverly Hills 90210, Melrose Place)
– a reciprocal relationship
– that preferences for violent TV at age 8 predicts adult aggressiveness and criminality (at age 30)
 Laboratory experiments show that children are more aggressive after being exposed to violence
 Field experiments provide the best evidence regarding the effects of media violence, especially for children predisposed to aggression
Effective learning tools
 Concern over violent video games
– Teens who prefer more violent games argue more with teachers and are more likely to get into fights at school
– Angry youth react much more strongly to violent video games than do more easy-going kids (reciprocal effect)
 Dangers of the internet
– Chat rooms (cybersexual relationships)
– Sexually explicit websites
– Hate group websites
 Inaccurate or biased information on the web or other media
– Garbage in, garbage out
 Computers may be a positive or negative force on development, depending on use
Violent video games
 Parents Fail to Take the Threat Seriously
– Only 1% of teens say their parents ever kept them from getting a game because of its rating
– 14% of teens (18% of boys) say they own games their parents wouldn’t approve of if they knew about them
– 89% of teens (91% of boys) say their parents “never” limit their video game time
– If parents were assigning the ESRB ratings, a significant number would be rated more strictly
 Perpetrators of recent school shootings were avid players of ultra-violent Doom or frequently exposed to other violent media
School adjustment
12% to 30% of children exhibit moderate to severe adjustment problems in the classroom
Early school adjustment problems, in turn, foreshadow many types of difficulties later in life
Children face a number of interpersonal challenges in school. Their classroom interpersonal skills and relationships may be precursors of school adaptation and adjustment

Cycle of peer acceptance: Children’s social behaviors antecede levels of acceptance by peers
Children who have behavior problems also have difficulties in their teacher-child relationships
Peer acceptance and teacher-child relationships are linked to later school adjustmen
Promoting School adjustment
Changing the way children think
Helping children translate interpersonal knowledge into skilled social behavior
Results are often mixed
–Intense treatment at an early age, followed by continuous “booster treatments” may be the best way to help children at risk for adjustment difficulties
Why are peer relationships important
: Provide an appropriate context for the development of autonomy
Provide experience in an equal-status relationship, promoting unique social or personal competencies
Provide support and help
Transmit informal knowledge (may be inaccurate)
Provide contexts for development of morals and values
Promote learning of social skills
Harlows Monkeys
•“Mother-only” monkeys
•Avoid peers
•Highly aggressive
•Antisocial tendencies persist into adulthood
•“Peer-only” monkeys
•Cling tenaciously to each other and form strong mutual attachments
•Become highly agitated over minor stresses or frustrations
•As adults, unusually aggressive to peers without their group
Infants and peer sociability
: Infants as young as 6 months show interestin peers (smiling, vocalizing, reaching)
Throughout infancy and early childhood, peer interactions become more complex and coordinated
By the end of preschool, most children have at least one reciprocated friendship
Sociability in middle childhood
The emergence of truepeer groups
–Interact regularly
–Sense of belonging
–Norms of behavior, dress, and thinking
–Structured or hierarchical organization
–Common goals
Peer interactions are highly segregated by gender
Same sex interaction in childhood
–Larger groups
–Organized sports and team play
–Themes of instrumentality and dominance
–More physical fighting and “rough and tumble” play
–More likely to play in open spaces or outdoors
–Smaller groups (dyads, triads)
–Play indoors or in more confined spaces
–More cooperative play and speech (few commands)
–More concerned with relational issues (establishing close, intimate connections with peers)
Opposite sex interaction in childhood
“Borderwork” (Thorne)
–Interactions that strengthen the boundaries between boys’ and girls’ groups
Rituals of pollution
–Interactions that are infused with heterosexual meanings
Kissing tag
Adolescent storm and stress
Peer Conformity and Antisocial Behavior
–Conflicts stemming from differences in values and practices advocated by parents and those favored by peers
–The problem is simply not much of a problem for most adolescents, especially if parents are authoritative
–Adolescents choose the advice of parents over peers when it comes to future-oriented decisions
Humor and peer rejection
Positive Peer Perceptions of Humor
–Like to tell great jokes and are good at making others smile and laugh
–Get lots of attention by acting funny and saying funny things
–Best sense of humor
Negative Peer Perception of Humor
–Think they are funny but are really not
Deserve Bullying
–Often get bullied by others and deserve the bullying they receive
Humor negatively predicts peer rejection, but also interacts significantly with aggression in prediction
–The more funny relationally aggressive boys or physically aggressive girls are perceived to be, the less severe the associated rejection
Peer perceptions of positive and negative humor help to better define children of the various sociometric status groups
–Controversial status children are highly aggressive, highly rated on positive humor as well as negative humor, and “deserve bullying”

–Children are more willing to overlook aggressive behavior when coupled with humor
–Controversial children appear to selectively apply positive and negative humor, just as they do with aggression and sociable behavior
–Teachers may be fooled by these socially savvy children and miss opportunities to intervene
Observational studies suggest that teachers intervene in physical or relational bullying only 5-20% of the time
Nonbehavioral characteristics related to peer acceptance
Social Class
Special Needs Children
Physical Attractiveness
Offbeat Names
Obesity and teasing
Recent survey of 4,746 adolescents
–30% of girls, 25% of boys teased by peers
–29% of girls, 16% of boys teased by family members
–15% of girls, 10% of boys were teased by both peers and family members
Compared with teasing from a single source or no teasing, teasing from both peers and parents was associated with a higher prevalence of emotional health problems
–Teasing about body weight was consistently associated with low self-esteem and body satisfaction and high depressive symptoms. The effect of the teasing remained the same, regardless of whether the adolescents were actually overweight or not.
–Adolescents teased about their weight were 2-3 times more likely to contemplate and attempt suicide
Selecting friends
Friendship and obesity
: Obesity can spread from person to person, according to a 2007 study which analyzed a large social network of 12,067 people from 1971 to 2003
The investigators knew who was friends with whom as well as who was a spouse or sibling or neighbor
People were most likely to become obese when a friend became obese. That increased a person’s chances of becoming obese by 57 percent. There was no effect when a neighbor gained or lost weight, however, and family members had less influence than friends
It did not even matter if the friend was hundreds of miles away, the influence remained. And the greatest influence of all was between close mutual friends. There, if one became obese, the other had a 171 percent increased chance of becoming obese, too
The same effect seemed to occur for weight loss, the investigators say. But since most people were gaining, not losing, over the 32 years, the result was, on average, that people grew fatter
Friendship Interactions & Maintenance
–Developmental trends
Younger children focus on common pursuits
Older children characterize friendships by more abstract values of mutual understanding, loyalty, self-disclosure
–Friends spend more time together
–Friends cooperate together
–Friends are competitive and conflict is common, though not necessarily detrimental
Functions of Friendships
–Intimacy, affection, enhancement of worth, and reliable alliance
What happens if your best friends fail in this regard?
Friends aggression
Crick & Nelson, 2002
–Identification of mutual friendships for 309 children
Grades 3-6
–Children rated their best friends’ engagement in physical or relational aggression toward them
r = .61 between relational and physical victimization
–Girls were more likely to be relationally victimized by the friend, whereas boys were more likely to be physically victimized by the friend
–Friend physical victimization predicted maladjustment for boys whereas relational victimization predicted maladjustment for girls
For boys, physical victimization was a better predictor of maladjustment problems than relational victimization. For girls, the inverse was true
Behaviorist interventnion approach
: Enhancing prosocial behavior through rewards
–Behavioral changes:
do not reach normative levels
do not persist once treatment is concluded
do not readily generalize to new settings
–May disrupt ongoing social interaction
Inhibiting aggressive behaviors through punishment
–Corporal punishment is largely ineffective
–Reprimands and time-out strategies may work, however they have the same shortcomings as those stated above for use of rewards
Operant procedures also fail to change peer judgments about rejected children
Social cognitive intervention
Underlying cognitive processes
–Social problem solving training
–Anger coping training
Treatment effects are small, though statistically significant
Often no change in peer acceptance
ADHD intervention
ADHD children and social skills training
–Like teflon–nothing sticks!
Ritalin can do wonders for increasing attentiveness and decreasing hyperactivity, but it cannot assuage the tendency to engage in negative cognitions
Even when medicated, hyperactive children continue to be rejected by peers at increased levels, relative to their normal peers
In short, Ritalin has some remarkable short-term advantages but it fails to bring about long-term gains in social adjustment
Family and school intervention
Many children in need of intervention come from families in disarray
Interventions that focus simultaneously on parent-child, teacher-child, and peer-child interactions have the greatest long-term gains
Very time-consuming and very expensive!
–FAST Track Program–a multi-site, multi-million dollar effort with not-so-impressive results
Single parent families
“. . . we warn that the disintegration of the family will bring upon individuals, communities, and nations the calamities foretold by ancient and modern prophets.”
–Family Proclamation
1. Common conflict issues between parents and teenagers
- Parents want to monitor their children and their teenagers see it as nagging. They are seeking
for autonomy so anything that restricts this will promote conflict between the child and the
parent. The parent/child relationship is going from a vertical to a more horizontal and equal
relationship, which puts stress on the teenager and the parent.
- self-governance issues: become common in adolescence and decline in frequency from
middle through late adolescence.
- adolescent’s physical appearance, choice of friends, or neglect of schoolwork and household
-Parents and adolescents still agree on the major issues, they disagree on the more mundane
2. Promoting autonomy in teenagers
- Do not be overly restrictive or permissive, be warm and supportive
- Do not undermine his or her curiosity, initiative, and feelings of personal competence
- Gradually loosen the reins
- Offer choices and help them explore various alternatives and make their own decisions,
guided by their interests, goals, and values.
-Continue to be authoritative
- Promotion of Volitional Functioning (PVF): parents guide or scaffold an adolescent’s decision
making, experiencing self-determination when resolving personal issues
The nature and course of sibling rivalry (how does it change over the life span?)
- Often begins as soon as a younger brother or sister arrives, as they lose their mother’s
- Number of minor skirmishes between very young siblings can range as high as 56 per hour
- adolescents have fewer conflicts with sibs than they did in earlier childhood- view them as
intimate associates they can turn to for companionship and emotional support
- Grade-school children tend to value their relationships with siblings
- As they mature, siblings may frequently protect and confide in each other, often more than
they confide in parents
sibling underground - they seem to be always conflicting but when parents are not watching
they are supportive
How parental differential treatment contributes to sibling rivalry
- It creates inequity, anger and envy between siblings
- sibling relationships tend to be less conflictual and siblings are better adjusted when mothers
and fathers respond warmly and sensitively to all their children and do not consistently favor one
child over the other.
- Younger siblings are particularly sensitive to differential treatment- display adjustment
problems and react negatively
Advantages/disadvantages of having siblings, according to the text
- protect and confide in each other
- An intimate tie to a sibling helps minimize the anxiety and adjustment problems displayed if
they are ignored or rejected by their classmates and promotes the development of social skills
- Older siblings teach new skills to younger brothers and sisters by modeling or providing direct
instruction- both profit from the tutoring in academics
- playful interactions among siblings contribute to children’s understanding of false beliefs and
the emergence of a belief-desire theory of mind
- squabbles are important- fosters perspective-taking, emotional understanding, negotiation and
compromise, and more mature forms of moral reasoning
- (Disadvantages) younger siblings tend to become more aggressive and display more problem
behaviors if their older siblings are highly aggressive and antisocial
- older children and adolescents whose sibling relationships become more conflictual over time
often display an increase in depressive symptoms
Immediate effects of divorce, and how they vary for all involved (e.g., children vs.
parents, boys vs. girls, etc.)
- There is an immediate crisis period where the children’s lives are completely turned upside
down- year or more
- The effects on children vary with age, but all children suffer
- Temperamentally difficult children have more difficulties than easygoing children
- Boys have been thought to do worse because they manifest their suffering overtly, but girls
experience covert distress which is less noticeable (withdrawn or depressed, precocious
sexual activity early in adolescence, lack self-confidence in relationships)
- younger, cognitively immature preschool and grade-school children display the most visible
signs of distress- inclined to feel guilty
Older children are better able to understand the conflict that led to divorce, but remain highly
distressed and may withdraw from family and become involved in undesirable peer activities
- Parents feel isolated from former married friends and other bases of social support
- Women who obtain custody must get by with 50-75% of the family income they had before,
while they must move to a lower-income neighborhood and work and raise young children
- Custodial mothers may be overwhelmed and often become edgy, impatient, and insensitive to
their children’s needs- frequently rely on coercive child rearing methods
- Non-custodial fathers are likely to become overpermissive and indulging (to ensure that they
are viewed as the favorite parent)
Long-term effects of divorce on children
- Most children seem to adjust and improve with time
- Many still have very negative feelings about it 20 years later
- Children of divorce fear that they will fail in their own marriages
- Adults of parents who were divorced are more likely than adults from intact families to have
marital problems and get divorced themselves
- as adults children of divorce report more depressive symptoms and lower levels of life
Factors ameliorating the negative effects of divorce
-Parents need adequate financial support to raise the children, or else stresses are that much
- Adequate parenting, not overly permissive or authoritarian
- Need social and emotional support from family and friends
- Extrafamilial social support from the community, parenting classes, counseling
- Minimizing additional stresses: try to stay in the same neighborhood so children can stay in
the same school and keep the same friends
Children’s adjustment to blended family situations and how it varies by age and
gender of children involved
- Boys benefit from having a stepfather but girls resist this new relationship- interrupts the bond
they have with their mother
- A stepmother disrupts the family’s routines. She is expected to monitor and discipline the
children and the children will resist this new direction. A father who was granted custody of his
children would have a very close relationship with his children that the stepmother interrupts
- Girls reject the stepmom, more disruptive and difficult than for boys
- Girls are often so close to their mothers that they are bothered by a stepfather competing for
their mother’s attention or by a stepmother attempting to play a substitute-mother role
- girls’ adjustment in stable stepparent families generally improves over time
- Early adolescents of both sexes find it more difficult to adjust to a remarriage than younger
children or older adolescents do
Research regarding the notion of a “cycle of abuse”
- This is not the norm- only 30% of physically abused children abuse the next generation
- 20- 49% of victims show few signs of behavioral or mental health problems
Risk factors and cultural factors relating to prevalence of child abuse
- Parents who were previously abused are at risk to abuse their own children - may have
learned that violence is a common reaction to frustration
- Young, poverty stricken, poorly educated, and single parents are at risk to be abusive. May
find parenting unpleasant and ego-threatening
- infants who are emotionally unresponsive, hyperactive, irritable, temperamentally impulsive, or
ill are more likely to be abused
- combination of a high risk parent and a high risk child is trouble
- More likely to occur in families under stress
- High risk neighborhoods: deteriorating neighborhoods where families are poor, transient,
socially isolated, and lacking in community services and informal support systems are at risk for
abuse- parents are socially isolated so may take out their frustrations on their children
- Culture: U.S. has a permissive attitude about violence and generally sanctions the use of
physical punishment as a means of controlling children’s behavior
- societies that discourage physical punishment and advocate nonviolent ways of resolving
conflict have less child abuse
Effective strategies for managing/controlling abuse once it has occurred
Parents Anonymous: helps caregivers to understand and cope with their problems and
provides them the emotional support they often lack
- Comprehensive Approach: need emotional support and opportunities to learn more effective
parenting and coping skills, and victims need stimulating day-care programs and specialized
training to help them overcome problems associated with abuse
- Cases of severe and repeated maltreatment may call for coercive interventions: prosecuting
the abuser and removing the victim
Correlates/outcomes for all types of abuse (physical, sexual, etc.)
- Intellectual deficits, academic difficulties, depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, disturbed
relationships with teachers and peers
- Neglected: more likely than other forms of abuse to cause academic difficulty and to have few
if any close friends
- Physically abused: Hostility, overt aggression, disordered social relationships, difficulty
regulating negative emotions, lack of empathy, disciplinary problems in school, and rejection by
- sexually abused: emotionally deregulated, anxiety, depression, acting out, behavioral
withdrawal, academic difficulties, strong feelings of shame, lack of attractiveness and self worth,
pessimism, reluctance to trust, sexualized behaviors, posttraumatic stress disorder
- Higher than average rates of criminal activity, substance abuse, depression, and other
psychological disturbances
Effective strategies for preventing abuse
- Empowerment Condition: home visitation program aimed at empowering mothers by teaching
them to analyze the underlying causes of caregiving problems without blaming themselves or
their children and to devise effective solutions to these problems
- identifying high risk families
- Home visitations that alter high-risk mothers’ malevolent cognitive appraisals of their infants’
behavior may go a long way toward preventing physical maltreatment
Transitional characters
- One who, in a single generation, changes the entire course of a lineage. They break the mold
and refuse to pass on an abusive environment to their children.They filter the destructiveness
out of their lineage so that generations downstream will have a supportive foundation upon
which to build productive lives.
TV’s effects on family interaction
- Decreases family interaction, becomes an electronic babysitter
- Families alter their sleeping and eating patterns around television programming
- not very meaningful time spent watching TV as a family: it prevents talks, games, and family
festivities and arguments through which learning takes place
The catharsis hypothesis
- people may often experience catharsis (draining away of aggressive energy) by thinking
aggressive thoughts (fantasy aggression)
- implies that exposure to televised violence should reduce aggressive impulses by providing
fantasy material used for cathartic purposes
-This has proven to be untrue
Conclusions of research regarding the effects of violent TV on children
- Media violence, if left unpunished, may communicate that violence is acceptable- desensitize
- stories rarely show the effects, and the bad guys often go unpunished and show no sign of
- preference for violent TV at age 8 predicts adult aggressiveness and criminality at age 30
- Children are more aggressive after being exposed to violence
- The correlation between media violence and aggression is about the same as the correlation
between smoking and lung cancer
- heavy childhood exposure to TV violence is most closely related to physical aggression for
adult males but related to both physical and relational aggression for adult females
TV as a socializing agent
- 2 year olds show a “video deficit” they learn less from models on TV than from face-to-face
- Young children can’t understand the messages of TV programming, they only remember the
actions, and this can be harmful depending on what programs they are watching
- a heavy diet of televised violence can lead to the development of hostile, antisocial attitudes
and behaviors that persist
- prosocial television, coupled with adult supervision and encouragement, promotes prosocial
behaviors more than violent television promotes aggression
Effects of prosocial programming (e.g., Sesame Street)
- possible high educational value, but only if parents discuss it with them
- adult needs to monitor and encourage children to rehearse and enact prosocial lessons they
have learned
- Prosocial television actually promotes prosocial behavior to a greater extent than violent
television promotes aggression
- violence in the program to compete for their attention
- Children more ready for school: improved on test scores on the alphabet and their ability to
write their names and in total test scores
- Gains in preschoolers’ vocabularies and prereading skills
Impact of violent computer games
- Teens who prefer more violent games argue more with teachers and are more likely to get into
fights at school
- Angry youth react much more strongly to violent video games than do more easy-going kids
(reciprocal effect)
- Perpetrators of recent school shootings were avid players of ultra-violent Doom or frequently
exposed to other violent media
- moderate positive correlations between the amount of time spent playing video games and
real-world aggressive behaviors
- Display a strong hostile attributional bias toward ambiguous provocations and significantly
more aggressive behavior
- Strongest for boys who identify with violent game characters
Gender stereotypes and TV
- Children who watch a lot of commercial TV are likely to hold more traditional views of men and
women than their classmates who watch little television
- Can have real implications for viewers’ self-concepts and self-esteem
- reinforces the “thin ideal” for young girls
- minorities often cast as villains or victims
- can bring people of different backgrounds together or drive them apart depending on how they
are depicted
TV viewing and obesity
- Media and TV watching is tied to consumption of junk food and obesity
- One of the strongest predictors of future obesity is the amount of time a child spends watching
television: less likely to burn excess calories
- promotes poor eating habits- high calorie products containing lots of fat and sugar are
advertised in commercials
Television commercials and child perceptions
- young children rarely understand the manipulative selling intent of ads, often treating them like
public service announcements intended to be helpful and informative
- 8-11 years most realize that ads are designed to sell, 13-14 years have developed a healthy
- glamorous depictions of alcohol and drugs in ads can cause children to underestimate the
consequences of risky behaviors- can be a greater problem than televised violence
The developmentalist’s definition of a “peer
peers are social equals or as individuals
who, for the moment at least, are operating at similar levels of behavioral complexity
The developmental contributions of peer interaction
provide an appropriate context for
the development of autonomy, provide experience in an equal-status relationship, promoting
unique social and personal competencies, provide support and help, transmit informal
knowledge (may be inaccurate), provide contexts for development of morals and values,
promote learning of social skills
Contacts with peers may allow children to elaborate their basic interactive routines and to
develop competent and adaptive patterns of social behavior with associates who are more less
similar to themselves
Freud and Dann’s study of war orphans
six 3-year olds were orphaned after their
parents were killed in a Nazi concentration camp, when attempts were made to rehabilitate
them they responded by breaking all their toys, damaging their furniture, reacted with cold
indifference or open hostility toward staff at the center. They wished only to be with each other
and became extremely agitated when they were separated and had remarkable prosocial
concern for each other. Later they established positive relationships with adult caregivers and
learned a new language, they were leading productive lives 35 years later (this shows the reallife
implications of being raised by peers)
Harlow’s “peer only” and “mother only” monkey study
Mother only monkeys—avoid
peers, highly aggressive, antisocial tendencies persist into adulthood. Peer only monkeys—
cling tenaciously to each other and form strong mutual attachments, become highly agitated
over minor stresses or frustrations, as adults, unusually aggressive to peers outside their group
Fundamentals of sociometric nomination techniques
used to assess a child’s
acceptance by his or her peers, children state their preferences for other group members with
respect to some specific criterion, in most surveys, children in a particular classroom are asked
to nominate several classmates whom they like and several whom they dislike, or they rate
every child on a 5-point likeability scale. These ratings correspond reasonably well to teacher
ratings of children’s peer acceptance, meaning they provide valid assessments of children’s
social standing in their peer groups. Categories of peer acceptance include popular, rejected,
neglected and controversial children.
Popular: high impact, many positive and few negative nominations
Rejected: high impact, many negative and few positive nominations
Neglected: low impact, few positive or negative nominations
Controversial: high impact, many negative as well as positive nominations
Average: anyone who doesn’t fit neatly into the preceding four categories
Characteristics, stability, and lifecourse outcomes of children in various peer
acceptance categories (derived from like/dislike sociometric nominations: popular,
rejected, neglected, etc.)
controversial status is not stable, it goes one way or the other (rejected or popular) fairly
quickly.(according to study we read) these children often use a mix of sociable and
aggressive behavior
rejected children tend to stay rejected over time - even years - even with interventions
and social skills training. When rejected kids taken out of original peer group and placed
in a new one, often gain rejected status in a matter of weeks. “architects of their own
Popular kids also tend to stay that way over time; peer perceived popular children
have superficially desirable traits - athleticism, attractiveness, material wealth, social
*sociometric is a measure of preference; peer perceived is a measure of social impact
and reputation (more traditional definition) popular children (by this definition) not
always well liked
Not nearly as bad to be ignored by other children as it is to be rejected- neglectees do
not feel as lonely and are more likely to change status in a new peer group, rejectees
are at greater risk to display deviant behavior
Predictors of peer acceptance
Friendly approaches
● Nurturance, social reinforcement
● Good group entry techniques: waiting, hovering, imitating group behaviors and
being integrated into the whole
● Cooperative play, social conversation
● Appropriate rough and tumble play
● Group dramatic/rule oriented play
○ (Rejection: aggressive, disruptive play, disruptive entry techniques,
inappropriate rough and tumble, withdrawn behavior, reticence,
Advantages/disadvantages of early maturation for boys and girls
Advantages for boys:
● poised and confident in social settings
● more likely to win athletic honors and election to student offices.
● tend to be accepted by their peers.
● More socially advantageous
Disadvantages for boys:
● Are expected to act more mature than they are (people expect them to act like
adults because they look like adults)
Disadvantages for girls:
● greater risk of displaying minor delinquency and misbehavior at school
● use of alcohol or drugs
● girls are less outgoing and less popular and are more likely to show symptoms of
anxiety and depression
● risk of psychological distress among early-maturing girls are much higher than
● Begin to associate with an older crowd so that they “fit in” (based on appearance)
which may lead to experimentation with risk behaviors
Advantages for girls:
● Small self-esteem boost at the beginning of puberty
Predictors of children’s abilities to form quality friendships
display high levels of social understanding: they respect rules, understand other’s
emotions and are good at reading others’ thoughts. Socially competent children
is a good predictor to have to form quality friendships.
● more successful at resolving conflicts, establishing a common-ground activity,
communicating clearly, and exchanging information
Sullivan’s theory of the importance of preadolescent chumships
The close reciprocal bonds that develop between same-sex friends during
preadolescence provide the foundation for a strong sense of self-worth and the growth
of caring and compassionate attitudes that a person needs to establish and maintain
intimate love relationships later in life. Preadolescents who have established intimate
same-sex friendships are more likely than their friendless age-mates to have broken
through the gender segregation barrier and begun to forge closer ties with members
of the opposite sex. Same-sex friendships prepare children and adolescents for
intimate romantic relationships.
Cross-pressures between parent and peer values
Cross-pressures : conflicts stemming from differences in the values/practices of
parents and peers
● Cross pressures are not a big problem for most adolescents (provided that these
adolescents have warm relationships with their parents and have internalized
their values)
● Peer group values are often similar to those of parents, peers are more likely to
discourage antisocial behavior
● These two influences are more complementary than contradictory
Peer interaction trends in children (extent of interaction with peers over time and the
nature of those interactions)
Infants as young as 6 months show interest in peers (smiling, reaching,
● Throughout infancy/childhood peer interactions become more complicated and
● By the end of preschool, most children have at least one reciprocated friendship
● In middle childhood: the emergence of true peer groups (interact regularly,
similar norms, structured hierarchy, common goals, sense of belonging). Peer
interactions are highly segregated by gender
● Boys: larger groups, more physical, emphasis on dominance and hierarchy,
outdoor play, sports and teams.
● Girls: Small groups, indoors, cooperative play, relational play (establishing close
connections with peers)
● Adolescence: opposite sex interactions become more common.
● Cliques and crowds (clique = small group of friends with distinct norms for dress,
talk, behavior. Crowd = reputation-based, larger group - ex: jocks)
Friendship trends in children (nature of friendships over time)
Ages 1-2, children may become attached to a preferred play partner and respond very
differently to these “friends” than to other playmates. Friends often do nice things for
each other, and many altruistic behaviors may first appear within these early alliances
of the preschool era. Ages 3-6 were generally willing to give up their own valuable play
time to perform a dull task if their efforts would benefit a friend. Young children also
express more sympathy in response to the distress of a friend. Conversations are more
cheerful, playful, and relaxed when the members of these pairing are good friends.
Trends regarding the effects of negative peer pressure
Social class, Special needs children, physical attractiveness, offbeat names
Findings of Robber’s Cave study
first friendships formed (day or two) then
group identity and leaders; highly competitive against opposing groups, friendships
not formed across group boundaries; BUT group structure can change according to
goal, “superordinate goal” can change group structure again, and friendships can form
across former group boundaries. Study generally showed that groups can be built up
and taken down; applications in church and social settings
Peer group entry strategies
successful: behaviors relevant to ongoing interactions
in group; wait and hover; mimic and make group oriented statements (talk as if they
were already in the group)
Unsuccessful: self oriented, disruptive, not as confident in positive peer responses and
their ability to enact relevant strategies
Compare/contrast acquaintances vs. friendships
disagreeing friends are more likely than disagreeing acquaintances to step away before
the squabbles become intense, make concessions by accepting equal outcomes, and
continue their interactions after the conflict is over. By middle childhood, friends are
more inclined than acquaintances are to follow the rules while playing competitive
games and to respect the opinions, needs, and wishes of their partner while negotiating
to settle a dispute.
Victimization within friendships (Crick & Nelson, 2002 findings)
Identification of mutual friendships for 309 children
● Child treated their best friends’ engagement in physical or relational aggression
toward them. r=.61best relational and physical victimization
● Girls were more likely to be relationally victimized by the friend, whereas boys
were more likely to be physically victimized by the friend.
● Friend physical victimization predicted maladjustment for boys whereas relational
victimization predicted maladjustment for girls
Werner & Crick (2004)
Your relational aggression brought out relational aggression in your friends and vice
versa. Girls perceive relational aggression differently than boys do.
Details of the FAST Track Prevention Study and details of different intervention
strategies (McFadyen-Ketchum & Dodge, 1998)
-Intervention needs to be at multiple levels
-Intervention was ineffective because single parent families were unable to make
necessary changes
Ladd and colleagues (2002) article on school adjustment
-School is a powerful source of socialization
-How do children’s peer relations transfer into school adaptation and the ability to cope
with transitions
-School adaptation is complex, a mixture to interpersonal characteristics as well as the
attachment children have to teachers and peers, school adjustment needs to be looked
at more broadly
-Children’s behavior plays a causal role in formation and maintenance of multiple
relationships within school, classrooms are complex social ecologies within which
children create multifaceted relational webs
-Relationships with peers are linked with various school adjustment criteria
-Peer-group acceptance is a stronger predictor of children’s participation in classroom
activities than friendships and is highly predictive of school achievement
Hart and colleagues (2000) socially withdrawn behavior in China, Russia,
and U.S.A
–There are many similarities across these unique cultures in regard to peer contact
patterns, parenting practices, withdrawn behavior subtypes and related child outcomes
-Teachers in each of the 3 cultures were able to identify each of the 3 withdrawn
–However, there are cultural nuances stemming from governmental policy, cultural
norms, and neighborhood features in the data
–These findings are supportive of both universals and cultural variations
-Socially withdrawn behavior is more acceptable in Chinese cultures where modesty
and humility is emphasized, whereas assertiveness is emphasized more in the US
Findings of Golombok & Tasker (1996) longitudinal study of homosexual parenting
- Social Learning: differential reinforcement and modeling of living in a homosexual
- Gender stereotypes are the primary source for gender-related information
- More children thought about becoming homosexual or having a homosexual
relationship than those who were raised in heterosexual homes, more women than men thought
about it as adults
- These children were no more likely to develop mental health issues or abnormal
emotional well-being