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101 Cards in this Set

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Looks at situation when people are going to have their bx change; continuum deals with coercision- how much effect/ force is on the individual
Social influences
With social incfluences, decrease level of coercision is _____, moderate level of coercision is _____ and increased levels is _______
Change in bx due to real or imagined group pressure; must feel pressure; just b/c people are doing the same thing doesn't mean that this happens
Conformity reason:
Public complience; going along with group publically, but internally, they don't feel like what their doing is the right thing; when you do something not to stick out; peer pressure
Normative influence
Private acceptance; privately internalize the change; this is right b/c of this...
Information influence
Sherif wanted to look at confomity using the
auto-kinetic effect
Asch used to _____ test to look at conformity
line test
Factors that influenced conformity effect; Group factors:
Increase level of conformity with higher levels of this; can get it from normative and informational
Factors that influenced conformity effect; Group factors:
_____ groups get more conformity up to about 6-8 people; i.e. 6 more than 4, 4 more than 2...
Size; larger
Factors that influenced conformity effect; Group factors:
Feel much more comfortable when most the group makes the same decision together
Factors that influenced conformity effect:responce factor:
_____(increased levels of conformity) more than _____; private is possible-can conform; but a lot more for public
public more than private
Factors that influenced conformity effect:responce factor:
you don't want to change; don't want to look like you have surcome to peer pressure
Prior commitment
Factors that influenced conformity effect:responce factor: how comfortable do you feel in an environment; culture is a factor-cross-culture-levels of conformity are fairly present - but- some cultures have very high levels of conformity (like ones who cut off your hand for stealing)
Person factor
This is not imagined, verbal; still has a choice in the manner
Compliance technique:
Are asking for a very small request, but really want more; works well b/c once they give to schema, don't like to change it; this only works if you can get ind to go along with 1st request
Compliance technique:
Ask for outlandish request ---> denied ---> then come back for a small request. A good example of this are auctions
Compliance technique:
We liek things when they are scarce; i.e. antiques
Playing hard to get
"shock"; how far would poeple go? studiend by
Obedience study:
Heart and begging/ screaming... results =
100% to 300V
67% to 450V
Obedience study:
If you have conformity with study like someone says "I won't go on."
Group influence; 450 V went down to 10%
We have an amazing ____ obedience to authority figures
Characteristic of an autority figure:
Actually in the room
Physical presence
Characteristic of an autority figure:
DO they have right to make the request that they are making; place of authority (this made a little differnece)
Characteristic of subject that are associated with high levels of obediance:
Believe that people in charge have the right to make a request and think that it is our job to go along with the request
Belief in authoritative submissiveness
Characteristic of subject that are associated with high levels of obediance:
So many religions teach obedience
Deeply religious people
Characteristic of subject that are associated with high levels of obediance:
Ind. with _____ locus of control; this is becuase authority figures are _____ influences
Lower levels of obediance by
having knowledge of Milgrim's research
Intent to physcially or verbally harm someone who is motivated to avoid such treatment or the distruction of property when motivated by anger
Type of aggression:
Intent to harm, goal to harm, done out of anger
Intent to harm, goal is to get something, not done out of anger
General affect aggression:
Variables that have to do with external
Situational Input Variables
General affect aggression:
Situational Input Variables:
____ often leads to aggression and aggression often leads to ________
General affect aggression:
Situational Input Variables:
Psychologic state of mind; character by membership in a larg group; lose of self-awareness; can't be picked out; "mob" mentality; i.e. trick-or-treaters can't be identified and in large group
General affect aggression:
Situational Input Variables:
Bandura or through intrumental learning
Observation learning (attend, recall, able, motivated)
General affect aggression:
Situational Input Variables:
Person, place or thing that is consistantly paired with or associated with aggresision; i.e. Weapons effect research = shock someone more in presence of ______
Aggressive cue
General affect aggression:
Situational Input Variables:
Incidents that are unwanted
Acersive incidents
Acersive incidents:
a. a lot of people
b. done something on purpose
c. uncomfortable
d. when this is unwanted
a. crowd
b. provocation
c. heat
d. noise
General affect aggression model: Personal input variables:
Freud; hardwired to act in aggressive fashion; inborn predisposition
General affect aggression model: Personal input variables:
Like testosterone
General affect aggression model: Personal input variables:
Males are more aggressive than females (physically)
General affect aggression model: Personal input variables:
Highly identified with group will resond in aggressive fashion
Group identification
General affect aggression model: Personal input variables:
This always facilites aggression
General affect aggression model: Personal input variables:
Increased levels = respond aggressively
In Frued's instinct theory:
is the life/ preservation instinct
In Frued's instinct theory:
_____ is the death/ distraction instinct
In Frued's instinct theory:
release of aggression through aggression
Release of aggression through our own aggression; actions are doing soemthing violent
Release of aggression through watching violent action of others
Why do males show to be more physically aggressive?
a. = male is teh aggresser
b. = roles for men and women
The three psychological states that situation and person affect:
1. Arousal
2. Affective State
3. Cognition
1. Intensisifies emotional responce
Like misattributed arousal, but with aggression; i.e. when they watched a scary movie, then watched funny movie; the funny movie became funnier with increased arousal
Excitation Transfer Theroy
Only type of porn that really showed increase in violence was
violent-aggressive porn; but showed the same increase as violent movies
2. This is when we are angry, grumpy
Affective state
This states that frustration doesn't lead to aggression without an negative affect (angry/ grumpy)
Cognitive neo-association theory
3. Around certain people/ mindset will open up schema and maybe increase our identification
Cognition priming
Now, arousal, affective state and cognition priming have a direct inpact on ______
This is the last thing that shows if we act aggressively or not; i.e. You want to beat someone up, but there is a cop nearby and you can't
Appraisal of environment
Any type of bx that is benifical to another person or society; i.e. 3 miles of highway free of trash
Prosocail bx
Selfless helping; helping person in need just to help them; there is no other motive involved; hard to measure
When we see someone in need, we can focus on distress of victum or distress of ourselves
Empathy-altruism hypothesis
Options for reducing stress according to the empathy-altrumis hypothesis
1. Focus on them (help them out)
2. Focus on us (could either help or escape)
According to Batson, when we feel empathy, we tend to be focued on the person _____ and then we help them out
Distress/ needs
Empathy-altruism hypothesis: The situation where the subjects helped out that was so interesting was ___ empathy, ____ eascape
High, high
1. Do you feel empathy
Yes =
No =
yes = help
no = escape easy
2. Is escape easy
Yes =
No =
yes = no help
no = help
State that we don't do autruism, only focus on ourselves
Negative State relief (egotistic)
Wanted to figure out if the "help" in teh E-A-H was due to autrism or becasues of our own distress; found that high emp and easy escape didn't equal help when put in a differnt situation
Question 1 of N-S-R:
Feel distressed?
Yes =
No =
yes = escape easy?
no = no help
Question 2 of N-S-R:
Escape easy:
Yes =
No =
Yes = no help
No = Can I relieve my distress without helping (party)
Question 3 of N-S-R:
Can i relieve my distress without helping:
yes =
No =
Yes = No help
No = Will helping relieve my distress
Question 4 of N-S-R:
Will helping relieve my distress?
Yes =
No =
Yes = help
No = no help
Helping is not simply a function of feel empathy and not desire to relieve our own distress; helping in not about getting rid of something bad, but experiencing something good like "joy" We feel good when we help
Empathic joy egoistic theory
Other two theories (E-A-H and N-S-R) is about relieveing distress the E-J-E is about ______
feeling/ gaining something good; so will not have escapes
E-A-H = empathy isn't _____ but ______
E-J-E = empathy is _____ but not ______
Question 1 to E.J.E:
Feel empathy?
yes =
no =
Yes = provide feedback
no = no help
Question 2 to E.J.E:
Provide feedback
yes =
no =
Yes = help
no = no help
Feedback in the E.J.E is ____ or examples like pictures, letters...
Pass off responsibility to act onto other people
Diffusion of responsibility
Model prosocial bx; it is possible
WHen poeple are in a hurry, they are _____ likely to help out someone
Far less likely
Type of culture norms:
Give and take; you help me, i'll help you
Reciprocity norm
Type of culture norms:
Above and beyond reciprocity norm; this is saying that it is your "job"
Socail responsibility norm
Characteristics of the helper:
The more ____ the person is, the more likely they are to help; if this is unresolved, will help out regardless of cause
Characteristics of the helper:
Help people we feel similar to
Characteristics of the helper:
Good, neg and neutral; pos and neg show increase help tendencies
Characteristics of the helper:
Women help everyone; don't care about gender; men do not help other men - only women
WHen the person is in a positive or happy mood and they help out someone, they are doing ...
Mood maintance
When people are in negative mood and they help out someone, they are doing...
Mood repair
How groups have direct performance
Influence of groups
Triplette first studied this with ____ and found that audiences enhance performance (not all the way true)
Bicylist; Socail facilitation theory
Zanjonc Socail Facilitation theory:
1. audiences are ____
2. arousal leads to _____ responce
3. will do better if you are dominatenly ____ and worse if you are dominently _____
Why are audiences arousing?
Concerned about how we are being judged
Evaluation apprehension
Why are audiences arousing?
simply being in the presence of an audience
Mere presence
Why are audiences arousing?
Audiences can pull us away, cognitive work arouses us
Why are audiences arousing?
How much is the audience in the head of the preformer? combination of the 3 effects
Psychological presence
When a group is together, they will make riskier decisions (not ture)
Risky shift
Enhancement of individual tendencies when placed into a group of SIMILAR others; can go either way on spectrum
Group polarization
Just going along with the group b/c they don't want to stick out
Normative influence
Gathering info and actually changing mind
Informational influence