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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
-support any countries that reject communism
-the Truman Doctrine was an enforcement of this policy
Secretary of State Dulles and President Eisenhower:
-being on the brink of war without actually going to war
-any threat made to the United States would be met with retaliation
Yalta Conference

in attendance: France, Britain, US, UK
-divide Germany into 4 zones
-divide Berlin into 2 zones
Berlin Airlift

*Stalin set blockade around West Berlin
-no one allowed in or out: civilians have no source of supplies
-Stalin's plan was to force them to surrender
*Instead for 11 months, U.S. and Britain planes flew food, medicine, and other supplies to the citizens
*realizing his plan was unsuccessful, Stalin called off the blockade
SALT Treaties
(Strategic Arms Limitation Talks)
set the limit on the number of missiles in the U.S. and Soviet Union at 1972 levels

*signed by Nixon and Brezhnev
Prague Spring
reforms made by Czechoslovakian leader Alexander Dubcek
Bay of Pigs Invasion
failed attempt to overthrow Cuban dictator Fidel Castro
defensive alliance formed in 1949 by the U.S., Canada, and 10 western European nations
Cuban Missile Crisis

*Because of Bay of Pigs invasion in which U.S. suffered humiliating defeat, Cuba made ties and agreements with the Soviet Union
*U.S. found evidence that the Soviet Union was holding nuclear weapons in Cuba: U.S.formed a blockade, or quarantine, around the country
*For 13 days, Kennedy and Soviet Union's Khrushchev were at a standstill: because of his drunkenness, Khrushchev lost a lot of prestige
*no nuclear missiles launched: closest ever to nuclear war
*one of the most important years of the 20th century
-Martin Luther King Jr. assassinated
-Bobby Kennedy assassinated
-Tet Offensive in Vietnam:
tactical victory for anti-Communists, psychological victory for the North and is what turned many Americans against the war
-democratic convention
-Nixon elected
Potsdam Conference
President Truman urged Stalin to permit free elections in Eastern Europe
*Stalin refused*
Truman Doctrine
*provided $400 million in aid for Turkey and Greece
*designed to support countries rejecting communism
*controversial but received immediate approval from Congress
Mikhail Gorbachev
*last Soviet leader*
*2 Major Reforms:
-glasnost:"openness", allowing new freedoms to combat corruption
-perestroika:"restructuring", modernize and allow some private censorship

gradual opening of the political system
-election of new legislative body
Ayatollah Khomeini
took control of Iran after 1979 revolution; strong hatred for US: kept hostages
Ho Chi Minh
*led Communists who united w/ other nationalists to defeat France at Dien Bien Phu
*leader of North Vietnam
Kim Jon Il
current leader of North Korea
Douglas MacArthur
led UN forces in Korea
Ngo Dinh Diem
*U.S.-backed leader of South Vietnam
-ruled as a dictator
-Vietcong formed in opposition to him
Tet Offensive
(1968)combined attack of Vietcong and N. Vietnamese forces: tactical victory for S. Vietnamese and U.S.; but major psychological victory for Communists

*turned many Americans against the war*
*Nixon's plan for withdrawal
-gradually pull out while increasing S. Vietnam's role
Pol Pot
*dictator and leader of Khmer Rouge in Cambodia
-oversaw the killings of 2 million Cambodians
*worst genocide of 20th century*
Nikita Krushchev
*took over Soviet Union after Stalin
-destalinization: take away influence of Stalin
*oversaw Cuban Missile Crisis
Leonid Brezhnev
*followed Krushchev in power of Soviet Union
*"Prague Spring"-new ideas protested his policies so he invaded Czechoslovakia
a lessening or easing of Cold War tensions; a "thawing" of the Cold War; practiced by Nixon
Marshall Plan
*U.S. Secretary of State George Marshall's plan for the United States to give aid to needy European countries
-provided food, machinery, and other materials to rebuild Western Europe
-spectacular success
Warsaw Pact
(1955)Communist nations formed this alliance after seeing NATO as a threat

*included Soviet Union, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania
He was the first human to orbit the earth.
Yuri Gagarin
Great Leap Forward
*Mao's Idea
-called for larger collective farms called communes, ended up being a giant step backward:

due to
1. poor planning
2. famine
3. no motivation (no money)
Iron Curtain
quote of Winston Churchill

*represented Europe's division into mostly democratic Western Europe and Communist Eastern Europe
United Nations
50 nations including US and Soviet Union formed this international organization intended to promote peace
-5 permanent members: China, US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union
Berlin Wall

*In 1961, wall was built to surround west Berlin and to isolate it from east Germany
-symbolized the world's division throughout the Cold War
-when the Berlin Wall came down, much of the tension ended
*Kennedy's visit: "I am a Berliner."
*Reagan's visit: "Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!"