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97 Cards in this Set

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Chemistry
the central science, which deals with all the matter in the universe and the changes it undergoes
Matter
anything which has mass and takes up space(volume)
Solid
definite shape, and volume and is not easily compressed
Liquid
indefinite shape and volume, and not easily compressed
Gas
indefinite shape and volume and is easily compressed
Homogeneous Mixture
a mixture that is visually the sample throughout the entire sample
Heterogeneous Mixture
a mixture that is visually different throughout the sample
Element
contains only one type of atom
Compound
can be broken down to simpler substances by chemical means
Physical Change
can be observed without changing the identity of the substance
Chemical Change
the substance identity is different after the change
Density
the ratio of the mass of an object to its volume
Dalton
1808-Dalton’s Atomic Theory
1.All elements are composed of invisible parts called atoms
2.Atoms of the same element are identical-False because of isotopes
3.Atoms can combine, separate, and rearrange in a Chemical Reaction
4.Atoms combine in simple whole number ratios
Proton
a positively charged subatomic particle found in a nucleolus of an atom
Electron
“-” charged subatomic particle outside the nucleus
Nucleus
a time dense central portion of an atom, composed of protons and neutrons.
Atom
the smallest particle of an element that retains its identity in a chemical reaction
Atomic Number
is equal to the number of protons found in the nucleus of the atom
Mass Number
is the sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom
Chemistry
the central science, which deals with all the matter in the universe and the changes it undergoes
Matter
anything which has mass and takes up space(volume)
Solid
definite shape, and volume and is not easily compressed
Liquid
indefinite shape and volume, and not easily compressed
Gas
indefinite shape and volume and is easily compressed
Homogeneous Mixture
a mixture that is visually the sample throughout the entire sample
Heterogeneous Mixture
a mixture that is visually different throughout the sample
Element
contains only one type of atom
Compound
can be broken down to simpler substances by chemical means
Physical Change
can be observed without changing the identity of the substance
Chemical Change
the substance identity is different after the change
literaly chemical change
Isotopes
atoms of the same element that have the same atomic number but different atomic masses due to a different number of neutrons
Electron configuration
the arrangement of electrons of an atom in its ground state into various orbitals around the nuclei of atoms
Valence Electrons
electrons in the highest energy level
Aufbau Principle
states that we must occupy the lowest energy level orbital that can receive it
Hund’s Rule
states that each orientation of an orbital must be occupied by one electron before electron before a second electron is added to any orbital orientation.
Pauli Exclusion Principle
states that no two electrons in any one atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers
Octet Rule
atoms react by gaining or losing electrons so as to acquire the stable electron structure of a noble gas, usually eight valence electrons.
Photon
a quantum of light; a discrete bundle of electromagnetic energy that interacts with matter similarly to particles
Nonmetal
no luster, not malleable, not ductile, not good conductor of heat and electricity
Metalloid
semi-metal
Ion
charged atom-gained or loss electrons
Anion
a negative ion
Cation
a positive ion
Ionization Energy
the energy required removing an electron from an atom in its gaseous state
Electronegativity
an ability of an atom in a bond to attract an electron
Atomic Radius
one-half the distance between the nuclei of the two atoms of the same element when the atoms are joined
↓,←
Lewis/ Electron Dot Structure
a notation that depicts valence electrons as dots around the atomic symbol of the element; the symbol represents the inner electrons and atomic nucleus; also called Lewis dot Structure
Covalent
sharing of electrons between two atoms
Diatomic molecule
a molecule consisting of two atoms
Polar molecule
a molecule in which one side of the molecule is slightly negative and the opposite side is slightly positive.
Non-polar covalent bond
a covalent bond in which the electrons are shared equally by two atoms.
Intermolecular Forces
are forces of attraction between molecules
London Dispersion Forces
an intermolecular force between two Non Polar molecules
Dipole-Dipole Factors
an attractive force between two polar molecules
Hydrogen Bonding
a intermolecular force between Hydrogen and a highly electronegative atom. (FONS)
Resonance
when a single Lewis Dot cannot explain the observed Bonding
Metallic Bonding
the force of attraction that holds metals together; it consists of the attraction of free-floating valence electrons for positively charged metal ions.
VESPER
a valance-shell electron-pair repulsion theory; because electron pairs repeal, molecules adjust their shapes so that valence electron pairs are as far apart as possible.
Hybridization
the mixing of several atomic orbitals to form the same total number of equivalent hybrid orbitals.
Single Replacement
a chemical equation that does not indicate the relative amounts of reactants and products
Double Replacement
a chemical change that involves an exchange of positive ions between two compounds.
Synthesis
a chemical change in which two or more substances react to form a single new substance
Decomposition
a chemical change in which a single compound is broken down into tow or more simpler products
Combustion
a chemical change in which an element or a compound reacts with oxygen, often producing energy in the form of heat and light
Oxidation Number
a positive or negative number assigned to an atom to indicate its degree of oxidation or reduction; the oxidation number of an uncombined element is zero
Molar Mass
a term used to refer to the mass of a mole of any substance
Percent Composition
the percent by mass of each element in a compound
Empirical Formula
a formula with the lowest whole-number ratio of elements in a compound; the empirical formula of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 → HO)
Molecular Formula
represents the exact number of atoms in a molecule
Reactant
a substance present at the start of a reaction
Product
a substance produced in a chemical reaction
Theoretical Yield
the amount of product that could form during a reaction calculated from a balanced chemical equation; it represents the maximum amount of product that could be formed from a given amount of reactant.
Percent Yield
the ration of the actual yield to the theoretical yield for a chemical reaction expressed as a percentage; a measure of the efficiency of a reaction
Ideal Gas Law
the relationship PV=nRT, which describes the behavior of an ideal gas
Boyle’s Law
for a given mass of gas at constant temperature, the volume of the gas varies inversely with pressure.
Charles Law
the volume of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature if the pressure is kept constant.
V up T up
Combined Gas Law
the law that describes the relationship among the pressure, temperature, and the volume of an enclosed gas.
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure
at constant volume and temperature, the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressure of the component of gas.
V=constant
T=constant
P=sum of partial pressure of gas
Kinetic Molecular Theory
the theory explaining the states of matter, based on the concept that all matter consists of tiny particles that are in constant motion
Effusion
the process that occurs when a gas escapes through a tiny hole in its container
Diffusion
the tendency of molecules to move toward areas of lower concentration until the concentration is uniform throughout
Vaporization
the conversion of a liquid to a gas or a vapor
Standard temperature and pressure (STP)
the conditions under which the volume of a gas is usually measured; standard temperature is 0°C, and the standard pressure is 101.3kPA, or 1 atmosphere(atm).
Phase Diagram
a graph showing the conditions at which a substance exists as a solid, liquid, or vapor.
Kinetic Energy
the energy an object has because of its motion
Equilibrium
the relative concentrations of reactants and products of a reaction that has reached equilibrium; indicates whether the reactants or products are favored in the reversible reaction
Molar Heat of Vaporization (Δhvap)
the amount of heat absorbed by one mole of a liquid as it vaporizes at a constant temperature.
Molar Heat of Fusion- (Δhfus)
the amount of the hat absorbed by one mole of a solid substances as it melts to a liquid a constant temperature
Molar Heat of Condensation- (ΔHcond)
the amount of heat released by one mole of a vapor as it condenses to a liquid at a constant temperature
Enthalpy (H)
the heat content of a system at constant pressure
Entropy (S)
a measure of the disorder of a system; systems tend to go from a state of order (low entropy) to a state of disorder (high entropy)
Solubility
the amount of a substance that dissolves in a given quantity of solvent at specified conditions of temperature and pressure to produce a saturated solution
Solute- dissolved particles in a solution
Solute
dissolved particles in a solution
Solvent
the dissolving medium in a solution
Molarity (M)
the concentration of solute in a solution expressed as the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 liter of solution
Molality(m)
the concentration of solute in a solution expressed as the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 kilogram (1000g) of solvent.
Aqueous Solution
water that contains dissolved substances