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65 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Constitution
is a document that set out the lws and principles of a government
Executed
to carry out laws
Confederation
alliance of independent states
ordinance
laws
economic depression
a period when business activity slows, prices, and wages fall, unemployment rises.
Why did states create a constituion?
To spell out the rights of the citizens and to set limits on the power of government
how were most governments broken up in new states?
two branches of government. executive or governer of the new state and legislature or congress. most states had a two-house legislature. upper and lower house.
What is a bill of rights? what did the virginia bill of rights protect for its citizens?
list of freedoms that government promises to protect. virginia- freedom of religion and press and trial by jury.
What were the voting requirements for the states?
citizen has to be a white male over the age of 21, own property and pay taxes
what were the articles of confederation?
First constitution of the United states. Created an alliance of indpendent states.
under the articles of confederation what powers did the federal government have?
- each state had one vote in congress
-weak with little power, states had all power
-declare war appoint millitary officers, coin money
-responsible for foreign affairs
-had to ask states permission for most things especially money.
what problems did the western lands cause?
The states wanted more and more land. land west of the appalachian mountains which america won in the revolution was fought over by most states.
what problems did the nation have?
conflicts between states ,money problems, other nations take advantage. states couldnt agree on what to do with western lands. the u.s owed millions of dollars to people and nations from borrowing during the revolution. the congress had to ask the states to tax to repay the debt and often the states refused.Britain refused to leave forts in Ohio river valley and spain closed New oreleans to America. The federal government was powerless to do anything.
what did the northwest ordinance of 1787 do? what were the rules to become a state?
Set up government for territory, population of 60,000 had to establish public schools and slavery was allowed in this area. established new states in northern ohio river valley.
what was shay's rebellion about and what did it cause?
in massachusetts taxes were raised. many farmers could not afford the taxes and lost their farms. a man named daniel shays started a small revolution the rebellion was stopped, but no one is punished. many felt shays was right and change was necassary. in may 1787 many states met in philidelphia to discuss the problems.
why did the articles od confederation fail?
States had too much power. federal government had none.
compromise
a settlement in which each side gives up some of its demands in order to reach an agreement
James Madison
delegate from virginia at the constituional convention. the author of the Constitution.
Alexander Hamilton
delegate form NY at the constitutional convention wanted a very strong federal government.
Who was the president of the constitutional convention?
George Washington
Under the Virginia plan what were the threee branches of government and what were their roles.
legislature- congress make and pass laws
Executive- preisdent carryout or enforce laws
Judicial- supreme court interpret laws
In the Virginia plan how would the legislature be setup? What type of states did Virginia favor?
the legislature would consist of two houses. upper and lower houses would be decided by population. this favored the big states.
who presented the New Jersey plan?
William Patterson
How was the New Jersey plan different from the Virginia Plan?
Also had 3 branches of governemtn but the congress woul be one house anf each state regardless of population would have one vote each. 13 total.
who set up the great compromise? What did the great compromise say?
Roger sherman- There would be 3 branches of government executie branch( president) Judicial branch(supreme court) Legislative branch( congress. two houses, lower house was called the house of representatives, which would be decided by population. upper houe would be called the senate, which would have two for each state)
What was the disagreement between northern and southern states?
How would the slaves be counted towards population?
What did the 3/5 compromise say?
3/5 of the slaves would be counted when counting population. North wanted slaves counted as property and the south wanted them counted as people. Compromise was each slave would count as 3/5 of a person.
When was the constitution ratified?
September 17, 1787
republic
a government in which citizens rule them selves through elected representatives.
magna carta
Document in England that limited the King's power.
English bill of rights
went further in limiting the monarchy and protecting the rights of citizens. Set up democracies elections and trial by jury.
House of burgesses
set up in 1619 by virginia colonists. Representative government in america established in all of the 13 colonies.
What did enlightenment thinkers believe?
People could improve society through the use of reason. Questioned things.
what book did john locke write? What important ideas does locke mention?
"two treatises on government" declared natural rights and he suggested that government is an agreement between ruler and the ruled. Natural rights- life liberty and property, given by god as long as those rights were protected man should obey the goverment. if natural rights were taken away men should revolt. social contract
what was the Mayflower conpact and why is it so important to America?
first document of government in North America. It set up self government in America. Governmen without kings control.
What did Baron Montesquieu publish? what did he say are seperation of powers?
The Spirit of Laws. Seperation of powers should be in the government so no person would gain too much power.
Under the constitution who has more power the state or federal government? How is that different that the Articles of Confederation?
federal government under the constitution the federal governement held, the power under the articles of confederation the states held all the power.
What is the difference between delegated and reserved powers?
delegates powers- power given to the federal government
reserved powers-powers the states had or kept.
federalism
division of power between the states and the national government
electoral college
made up of electors from every states. the founding fathers did not think most Americans in 1787. could make a judgement on who could be president. it is a check against the people.
Checks and balances
under this system each branch of the federal government has some way to check, or control the the other two branches. it limits the power of the government.
bills
proposed laws
which branch of government has veto power and what does veto mean?
the president
veto - to stop or reject a bill
how much of congress is needed to override the presidents veto?
2/3 of both houses
which branch has the power to impeach and what does impeach mean?
house of representatives. impeach means to bring charges against.
what does constitution spell out?
the powers that the federal government has.
under the constitution what are some state powers.
- power to regulate trade within their state
-establish public schools
-any power not given to the federal government belongs to the states.
name some checks in our government
-the president has the power to veto
-house has the power to impeach
-senate can convict the president
-supreme court can find laws unconstitutional
federalists
supporters of the constitution
anti-federalists
opposed of the constitution
how many states would be needed to ratify the constitution?
9 of the 13 had to vote for it
what was the federalist position on the constitution?
a. federal government is too weak under the articles of confederation
b. too much power for the states
c. constitution gave the government power to run effectively
d. constitution still protected the rights of citizens and states
What was the anti- federalist position on the constitution
a. it made the federal government too strong and the states and people too weak.
b. felt that the president would have too much power and be like a king
why was the bill of rights needed?
they wanted the bill of rights to spell out the laws. and protet the citizens against the power of federal government by limiting the power of the federal government.
what is the bill of rights?
the first ten amendments to the constituton
first amendment
individual liberities- freedom of speech, press, religion, right to assemble, right to protest the government.
second amendment
the right to bear arms
third amendment
no quartering of troops
fourth amendment
search seizure
fifth amendment
rights of the accused- due process- double jeoprady
sixth amendment
in criminal cases the right to a trial by jury and the right to an attorny
seventh amendment
the right to a jury in civil cases
eighth amendment
no cruel or unusual punishment
ninth amendment
rights in the constitution are not the only ones that exist
tenth amendment
any power not given to the federal government will be given to the states