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72 Cards in this Set

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Patriot
a colonist who supported independence from British rule. Fighting for the cause of Liberty. Also called rebels.
Loyalists
a colonist who remained loyal to the British rule. Also called tories.
refuegees
People who flee his or her homeland to seek safety elsewhere.
Blockade
Shutting off a port by positioning ships to keep people or supplies from moving in or out
mercenaries
Soldiers who fight merely for pay, often a foreign country.
Where did the second continental congress meet?
Philidelphia. Old Pennsylvania state house. Today called Independence hall.
Who took over Fort Ticonderoga for America?
Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys.
What was the Continental Army and who was appointed its commander?
An army established by the second Continental Congress to fight for the British. George Washington was the commander.
WHat was the Olive Branch Petition and how was it recieved by the king?
Declared their loyalty to the King and asked to repeal the intolerable acts. The King was furious.
What were the advantages of the Patriots early in the war?
many patriots were good shots. Washington was a great commander. They were fighting for their homes and a cause of independence.
What were the disadvantages of the patriots early in the war?
Poorly organized and untrained army, unprofessional. Few Cannons and supplies and a small navy
What were some advantages of the British early in the war?
Some colonists and hessians as allies. Experienced, well trained army, Strongest navy in the world.
What were some of the disadvantages of te British early in the war?
3,000 miles from home, unfamilar with the wilderness. Red coats, stubborn generals were unwilling to change fighting styles
Give a brief description of the Battle of Bunker Hill.
June 16, 1775 colonel William Prescott led 1,200 minutemen up Breed's hill. The American Held the high ground. The british attacked up the hill in row formation nd suffered huge losses more than 1000 redcoats were killed. the americans ran low on gunpowder. "Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes" The british took the hill but both sides declared a victory.
Who led a bold attack through Maine into Canada?
Benedict Arnold and Richard Montgomery
Traitor
a person who betrays his or her country
preamble
introduction
Natural rights
rights that belong to all people from birth. Jefferson said they are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
Who is the author of Common Sense and when was it written?
Thomas Paine, January 1776.
What did Common Sense say about the King?
They didnt owe the king anything. The kIng was a tyrant and the idea of a monarchy is wrong. Being born into privelege is wrong.
Why was Common Sense so significant?
It convinced the colonists in the idea of independence. The chance to create a better society and a democracy. Let us make alliances with other countries.
Who proposed independence on June 7, 1776?
Richard Henry Lee of Virginia.
Who were the five men on the declaration of independence committee?q
John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Ben Franklin, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston
Who wrote the declaration of independence? When did Congress accept it?
Thomas Jefferson July 4,1776
What was the first part of the Declaration?
Preamble- the into
What was the second part of the Declaration?
Natural rights- ideas jefferson took form John Locke. Locke said natural rights were givin to man by Gd. Locke said man and government made a "social contract" Man would follow government as long as natural rights were protected. If natural rights were taken away. Man had the right to overthow that government. All men are created equal. Politically equal. One vote of equal weight. Persuit of happiness means the chance to improve social status.
What was was the third part of the Declaration?
British Wrongs- Grievances. All the complaints against the King and England. Mentions taxes.
What was the fourth part of the Declaration?
Conclusion Independence, the birth of the United States of America, that America was free.
Battle of Long Island
more than 1400. Americans killed wounded captured. British General William Howe took over Long Island and New York City.
Nathan Hale
A yong Conneticut officer. An american spy who tried to find out information for George Washington. He was captured by the British and executed. "I only regret that i have one life to lose for my country"
Marquis de Lafayette
French general who became a valuable ally and close friend to Washington
Friedrich von Steuben
Prussian Drill Commander who came to train the continental army.
Casimir Pulaski
trained the American calvalry
who was the "crisis" and why was it so important?
Thomas Paine. It insoired Americans to sacrafice and keep fighting for independence.
Descirbe the battle of Trenton. Why was the victory significant.
The continental army was near defeat losing many battles and Washington needed a victory. December 25, 1776 Washington and about 2,000 American Soldiers crossed the Delaware River into NJ. At Trenton were the German Hessians. Many did not expect an attack during Christman and partied too much. Washington totally surprised the Hessians and easily took Trenton. It was significant because it renewed hopes for an American victory and many Americans enlisted into the army.
Describe the battle of Saratoga. Why was this the turning point of the war?
British General John Burgoyne tried to take over NY and cut America in two Burgoyne had trouble in the wilderness of NY. He took all of his comforts, bed, wine, servants, wives and children. The americans led by benedict Arnold and Horatio Gates defeated the British using hit and run tactics. Turning point of the war because the british no longer would got into the American wilderness and France became America's ally.
What was Valley Forge and what happened there?
1776-1778 The winter home of the continental army. Many Americans died of frostbite and starvation.
Battle of Long Island
more than 1400. Americans killed wounded captured. British General William Howe took over Long Island and New York City.
Nathan Hale
A yong Conneticut officer. An american spy who tried to find out information for George Washington. He was captured by the British and executed. "I only regret that i have one life to lose for my country"
Marquis de Lafayette
French general who became a valuable ally and close friend to Washington
Friedrich von Steuben
Prussian Drill Commander who came to train the continental army.
Casimir Pulaski
trained the American calvalry
who was the "crisis" and why was it so important?
Thomas Paine. It insoired Americans to sacrafice and keep fighting for independence.
Descirbe the battle of Trenton. Why was the victory significant.
The continental army was near defeat losing many battles and Washington needed a victory. December 25, 1776 Washington and about 2,000 American Soldiers crossed the Delaware River into NJ. At Trenton were the German Hessians. Many did not expect an attack during Christman and partied too much. Washington totally surprised the Hessians and easily took Trenton. It was significant because it renewed hopes for an American victory and many Americans enlisted into the army.
Describe the battle of Saratoga. Why was this the turning point of the war?
British General John Burgoyne tried to take over NY and cut America in two Burgoyne had trouble in the wilderness of NY. He took all of his comforts, bed, wine, servants, wives and children. The americans led by benedict Arnold and Horatio Gates defeated the British using hit and run tactics. Turning point of the war because the british no longer would got into the American wilderness and France became America's ally.
What was Valley Forge and what happened there?
1776-1778 The winter home of the continental army. Many Americans died of frostbite and starvation.
Neutral
uninvolved in the war, taking no sides
Bernardo De Galvez
Governer of Spanish Louisiana. Favored the patriots. Helped suply the army.
Betsey Ross
Sewed flags for the first battle for Washington's army. became our national flag. Also sewed many other flags for her friend George washington.
Molly Pitcher
Carried water to the soldiers, when her husband was wounded she took his place firing a cannon. Helped "wash out" the cannons
On what side did the Iroqouis indians join?
The British they thought the british would win and most Indians hated the Americans
Who was George Rogers Clark?
American who led the Virginia frontier fighters against the British. They also took over Fort Vicennes.
Who was John Paul Jones and what was the name of his ship? what was his famous quote?
American naval captain who sailed on the bonhomme Richard. His famous quote was "I have not yet begun to fight"
Describe how African Americans joined the fight in the American Revolution?
Many African Americans fought in the Revolution. 1/5 of the American army was African American. African American men fought at many of the major battles in the revolution. Prince Estabrook was wounded during lexington and Concord. Peter Salem and Salem Poor fought at Bunker Hill
Where were the Lexington and Concord of the South?
Battle of Moores Creek Bridge
battle of Kings Mountain
Called "the turn of the tide" American victory in the south on October 7, 1780 in South Carolina. It helped turn the battle of the south.
Nathaniel Greene
American general from Rhode Island. Took control of continental army in the south.
Dan Morgan
American general from Virginia. Helped General Greene in the defense of the south
How did general Morgan win the battle of Cowpens?
Morgan used a clever tactic. He divided his soldiers into a front line and a rear line. He ordered the front line to shoot two shots and retreat. the british chased the americans over a hill and on the other side was the rest of the American Army.
Who was Francis Marion? Wat battle tactics did he use?
Also known as the "swamp fox" he used the south Carolina militia to frustrate the British. He used guerilla warfare, hit and run tactics.
How did Benedict Arnold betray America?
Angry for never getting the credit he deserved, Arnold secretly agreed to turn westpoint over to the British. The Americans found time out in time but Arnold escaped and joined the British.
What city did Benedict Arnold take over for the British ?
Richmond, Virginia
Arnold captured and burned the capital of Virginia.
What is a peninsula?
A strip of land surrouded on three sides by water.
What city did British General Cornwallis bring his troops to camp at? Why did he decided to camp there?
British General Cornwallis camped at Yorktown, Virginia. He felt that a peninsula was the perfect place tp camp because if he ran into trouble the British navy would have easy access to him.
Comte De Rochambeau
French general at Yorktown. Joined Lafayette and Washington at Yorktown
Admiral De Grasse
French Admiral that helped win battle of Yorktown.
Siege
surrender. The act of surrounding an enemy position in an attempt to capture it.
How did the Americans and French win at Yorktown, Virginia?
Cornwallis thought a peninsula was the best position. Washington combined his forces with Lafayette and Rochambeau and blocked cornwallis' land escape and De Grasse blocked off his water escape. The British were surrounded and had no choice but to surrender on October 19, 1781
Who was sent to negotiate peace talks in paris in 1782?
Ben Franklin, John Adams, John Jay, Henry Laurens.
what does ratiffied mean?
Approved
What did the Treaty of Paris say?
-Recognized the independent nation
-America would be all land from the Atlantic to the Mississippi River
- Spain would control Florida
-America would pay loyalists money lost in the war
List the reasons why America won the American Revolution
-Geography the americans were spread through a huge area
- The British were thousands of miles from home
- The British captured coastal cities and the Americans just moved inland.
-Familar with land. Wilderness
- help from France and Spain with money, weapons, and soldiers.
-patriotic spirit, liberty, freedom, and independence
-Leadership of George Washington