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87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Social cognition refers to how
people select, interpret, remember, and use social information to make judgements and decisions.
People categorise their social world in an attempt to
impose some order, simplifying and structuring the social world.
Ash's configural model is a ______ based model of _____ ______, in which central traits play a ________ role in configuring the _______ ______.
gestalt;
impression formation;
disproportionate;
final impression.
Traits that have a disproportionate influence of the configuration of final impressions in Ash's configural model of impression formation are called
central traits
Traits that have an insignificant influence on the configuration of final impressions, in Ash's configural model of impression formation are called
peripheral traits
In Ash's configural model the traits _____ & _____ are central traits that independently resulted in a more favourable impressions than _____ & ______, Most influential were the _____/______ traits.
warm; polite;
blunt; cold;
warm/cold;
What the 6 main biases in forming impressions?
1. primacy/recency
2. positivity/negativity
3. personal constructs and implicit personality theories
4. physical appearence
5. stereotypes
6. social judgeability
Primacy and recency bias shows that the
order in which information about a person is presented can have profound effects on the subsequent impression.
An order of presentation effect in which earlier presented information has a disproportionate influence on social cognition is known as the
primacy effect
Ash found evidence for a ______ effect when ______ information was presented ______ than when ______ information was presented _____.
primacy;
positive;
first;
negative;
first.
An order of presentation effect in which later presented information has a disproportionate influence of social cognition is called the
recency effect.
Research has shown that in the acence of information to the contrary people tend to assume the ___ of others and form a ____ impression. If there is any ______ information people are biased to forming a _____ impression.
best;
positive;
negative;
negative.
People are biased to negative information for two reasons:
1. information is distinctive and therefore attracts our attention (cognitive)
2. information signifies potential danger (survival).
Widely shared and simplified evaluative images of a social group or its members is known as a
stereotype
Stereotypes are _____ representing ________ views about the characteristics of a specific _______ _______.
schemas;
consensual;
social category.
Ambiguous information is interpreted ________ or __________ according to one's _________.
meaningful;
disambiguated;
stereotype.
A schema is a _____ _____ that represents knowledge about a _______ including its attributes and the ______ among those attributes.
cognitive structure;
concept;
relations.
Once invoked, schemas facilitate a ___ ___, ____-driven or ____-driven processing as opposed to ______ ___ or _____-driven processing.
top down;
concept;
theory;
bottom up;
data
What are the 5 different types of schemas?
1. person schemas
2. Role schemas
3. Scripts
4. Content free schemas
5. Self schema
A prototype is the
cognitive representation of the typical defining features of a category eg psychlogist
Fuzzy sets are
categories that are a fuzzy set of features organised around a prototype.
ie a university lecturer
Exemplars are specific
instances of a member of a category.
Macrae, Milne & Bodenhausen (1994) in their dual task experiment, listening to information about indonesia and monitoring traits words on the computer screen they found two things;
1. people remember more schema consistent information
2. schematic processing is automatic and releases cognitive resources for other tasks ie recalled more about Indonesia
Cohen (1981) in his experiment of the waitress versus the librarian demonstrated that
different schemas lead to memory biases and false reconstructions.
Murphy & Zajonic is their study of automatic/subliminal presentations found that people liked the Chinese ideograph when it was preceded by a subliminal presentation of a
happy face
Crusco & Wetzel (1984) showed that a brief touch on the hand when returning change resulted in
customers leaving bigger tips
Subliminal manipulators has a
priming effect
Social cognitive processes can operate below our
usual level of awareness
We are not trustworthy in reporting the bases of our
social actions
Accurate reports about our cognitive processes may occur when influences are
salient and plausible
Accessible schemas are ones that are
habitually used or salient in memory.
Schemas that are functional and accurate enough for immediate interactive purposes have
circumscribed accuracy.
When the outcome of a decision depends on the actions or attitudes of others people tend to
attend more to to other people.
Accountability for a decision results in greater
viligance and attention to data and generally more complex cognition.
The higher the cost of indecisiveness the more heavily people rely on _____ and need less ______.
schemas;
evidence.
Based on the automaticity of schema activation and errors in human inferences is the idea that people take
mental shortcuts whenever they can by relying on schemas.
Chemas lend a sense of _____, ______ and _____ to the social world that would otherwise be highly complex and unpredicatable. There are strong pressures to _______ schemas.
order;
structure;
coherence;
maintain.
Schema acquisition and development makes schemas generally more
accurate.
Dijksterhuis & can Knippenburg in their 'soccer hooligan' experiement showed that people suppress
schema inconsistent information
Schema inconsistent information is better recalled when it is
salient or has personal significance
If you attend to schema inconsistent information you can use this to
develop the accuracy of your schema.
Stanger & McMillan in their meta analysis found that the stronger the schema the
increase in recall for circumstances that are congruent.
The automatic activation of stereotypes in an
insideous process that can inhibit our accuracy and effectiveness.
People can change their activation of schemas by consciously
attending to the person and suspending prejudice.
The automatic activation of stereotypes is likened to the cognitive process of
spreading activation theory
The organisation of a person in memory generally shows that exemplary instances are more likely is the person is a _____ or ____ _____. But for ______ people we rely on ______.
friend or family member;
unfamiliar;
schemas.
Rothbart suggested 3 process of schema change, these are:
1. Bookeeping - gradual change
2. Conversion - accrual of disconfirming information
3. Subtyping - formation of a subtype in the face of disconfirming information
Which process of schema change does research support?
subtyping
The property of a stimulus that makes it stand out in relation to other stimuli and attract attention is known as
salience
Salient people _____ attention and tend to be considered more _______ in a group. They are also seen as more _______ responsible for their behaviour and are ______ more extremely.
attract;
influential;
personally;
evaluated.
Aronsen, Wilson and Akert found that in general people are _____ _____ able to choose a variety of ______ _____.
Flexible thinkers;
Mental strategies.
When the stakes are _____ people use more ______ ______, are more _____ and are more _____ to notice facts that are in _____ with their prior schemas.
high;
sophisticated strategies;
accurate;
likely;
conflict.
Unlike automatic processing, controlled thinking requires
motivation and effort.
Benedict Spinozo asserted that when
people initially see, hear or learn something they take it at face value and assume it is true.
Gilbert confirmed Bendict Spinozos assertion reiterating that everything people
see and hear is believed in the first instance and only evaluated after the fact.
Gilbert's theory of automatic processing suggests the following three steps:
1. automatic acceptance of information (automatic)
2. assess truthfulness of accepted beliefs (controlled)
3. unaccept if necessary (controlled)
An increase in cognitive load reduces the ability to engage in
controlled processing of information
Acceptance of information operates unchecked when people are
tired or unmotivated.
Macrae, Bodenhausen, Mile and Ford (1997) found that when we attempt to suppress an unwanted thought they tend to reappear with even great insistence. This is known as the
rebound effect
The rebound effect has serious implication for court for example...
when the jury is asked to disregard evidence it may strengthen its effects during deliberation.
There are 3 major problems in testing for the existence of schemas, these are:
1. The validity and reliability of measures
2. Limits of schemas are not clear
3. Individuality of schemas is hard to investigate.
Overestimating the degree of correlation or seeing a orrelation where none exists is known as
illusory correlation
Illusory correlation in which items are seen as belonging together because they 'ought' to on the basis of prior expectations is known as
Associative meaning.
Illusory correlation in which items are seen as belonging together because they share some unusual feature is know as
Paired distinctiveness
The two stages of the global model of thinking are:
1. spontaneous (automatic, procedural) and
2. deliberative (controlled, declarative)
What are the 4 processes involved with spontaneous stage of the global model of thinking?
1. Categorisation - stereotype/schema
2. Biased assumptions - typical + or - characteristics
3. Biased emotions - + or - reactions based on typicality
4. Biased treatment - subsequent behaviour
What are the 4 processes involved with the deliberative stage of the global model of thinking?
1. Gather more information
2. Re-categorise
3. Avoid guilt - if adjustment is insufficient deliberate more
4. Suppress Reactions - deliberately avoid displaying initial -ve reactions
What are the 4 main heuristics?
1. Representativeness
2. Availability
3. Anchoring and Adjustment
4. Simulation
A cognitive shortcut in which instances are assigned to categories or types on the basis of overall similarity or resemblance to the category is known as the
Representativeness Heuristic
A cognitive shortcut in which the frequency or likelihood of an event is based on how quickly instances or associations come to mind is known as the
Availability Heuristic
A cognitive shortcut in which inferences are tied to initial standards or schemas is known as the
Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic
Social inference is the process
of used to identify, sample & combine info to form impressions and make judgements.
According to social inference deductive inferences are ___-driven, ___-_____ driven processes that are _______ and indictive inferences are ____-driven, ___-____ driven processes that are _______.
schema; top-down; automatic;
data; bottom-up; controlled.
The more salient behaviours/characteristics are noticed, they dominate our ______ and lead to more coherent _____ and extreme dispositional evaluations.
perceptions;
organised;
What are the 6 factors that affect the accuracy of social inference?
1. Salience
2. Vividness
3. Accessibility
4. Ignoring base rates
5. Covariation
6. Illusory correlations
Vivid stimulus are ones that are:
1. Emotionally interesting
2. Concrete and image provoking
3. Close to you in time and space
An intrinsic property of a stimulus on its own that makes it stand out and attract attention is
Vividness
The activation of accessible categories or schemas in memory that influence how we process new information is known as ______ and is what precipitates the ________ heuristic.
Priming;
Accessibility.
Palid, factual statistical information about an entire class of events is known as
Base Rate Information
Base rate information is often _____ due to _____ or _____ of an event which leads to ______ in inferences.
overestimated;
vividness or salience;
errors.
Judgements of covariation are judgments of
how strongly two things are related.
Mental short-cuts or rules of thumb that help reduce complex judgements to a set of simpler operations is called a
Heuristic
According to Tversky & Kahnmen heuristics can be efficient and powerful but
may lead to systematic biases or misperceptions.
Simulation heuristics are judgements based on
mental simulations of risky judgements and consequences.
Simulation heuristics can lead to ______ in our beliefs about how things must have happened.
overconfidence
Hindsight bias is the
exaggerated belief that we knew all along what was going to happen.
Counterfactual thinking is
thinking about how things may have turned out.