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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
cognitive dissonance
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent.

for example, when we become aware that our attitudes and actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
social facilitation
improved performance of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered.
social loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
deindividuation
the loss of self-awareness and self-restrait occuring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
group polarization
the enhancement of a groups prevailing attitude through discussion within a group.
groupthink
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
in-group bias
the tendency to favor one's own group
just-world phenomenon
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
frustration-agression principle
the principle that frustration-theblocking of an attempt to achieve some goal-creates anger, which can generate aggression.
socialtraps
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking them.
equity
a condition in which people receive ffrom a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
altruism
unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
bystander effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
superordinate goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
G.R.I.T. (graduated and reciprocal initiatives in tension-reduction)
a strategy designed to decrease international tension
social psychology
studies way people relate to others
social cognition
explaining how people think about themselves and others
attitude
set of beliefs and feelings. evaluative: positive or negative
door-in-the-face
after people refuse a large request, they will look more favorably upon a follow-up request that seems, in comparison, much more reasonable.
self-fulfilling prophecy
the expectations we have about others can influence the way those others behave.
conformity (Asch)
tendency of people to go along with the views and actions of others.
obedience (Milgram)
willingness to do what another asks them to do.