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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
activating particular associations in memory
belief perseverance
persistence of one's initial conceptions (basis for one's belief is discredited but explanation of why the belief might be true survives)
misinformation effect
incorporating "misinformation" into one's memory of the event, after witnessing an event and receiving misleading information about it
knowing something without reasoning or analysis
controlled processing
"explicit" thinking that is deliberate, reflective, and conscious
automatic processing
"implicit" thinking that is effortless, habitual, and without awareness (like intuition)
perceptual misinterpretations, fantasies, constructed beliefs
overconfidence phenomenon
tendency to be more confident than correct; overestimate accuracy of one's beliefs
confirmation bias
tendency to search for information that confirms one's perceptions
simple, efficient thinking strategies
representativeness heuristic
presume that someone or something belongs ot a particular group if resembling a typical member
availability heuristic
cognitive rule that judges likelihood of things in terms of their availability in memory; if instances of something come readily to mind, we presume it to be commonplace
counterfactual thinking
imagining alternative scenarios and outcomes that might have happened but didn't
illusory correlation
perception of a relationship where non exists, or perception of a stronger relationship than actually exists
illusion of control
perception of uncontrolllable events as subject to one's control or as more controllable than they are
regression toward the average
the statistical tendency for extreme scores or extreme behavior to return toward one's average
mistakenly attributing a behavior to the wrong source
attribution theory
theory of how people explain others' behavior
dispositional attribution
attributing behavior to the person's disposition and traits
situational attribution
attributing behavior to the environment
fundamental attribution error
tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences upon other's behavior
self awareness
a self-conscious state which focuses on oneself; it makes people more sensitive to their own attitudes and dispositions
self-fulfilling prophecy
a belief that leads to its own fulfillment
behavioral confirmation
type of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby people's social expectations lead them to behave in ways that cause others to connfirm their expectations