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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Activating particular associations in memory
Belief perseverance
Persistence of one's initial conceptions, as when the basis for one's belief is discredited but an explanation of why the belief might be true survives
Misinformation Effect
Incorporating "misinformation" into one's memory of the event, after witnessing an event and receiving misleading information about it.
Controlled Processing
"Explicit" thinking that is deliberate, reflective, and conscience.
Automatic Processing
"Implicit" thinking that is effortless, habitual, and without awareness, roughly corresponds to "intuition"
Overconfidence Phenomenon
The tendency to be more confident than correct-to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs.
Confirmation Bias
A tendency to search for information that confirms one's perceptions.
A thinking strategy that enables quick, efficient judgments.
Representativeness Heuristic
The tendency to presume, sometimes despite contrary odds, that someone or something belongs to a particular group if resembling (representing) a typical member.
Availability Heuristic
A cognitive rule that judges the likelihood of things in terms of their availability in memory. If instances of something come readily to mind, we presume it to be commonplace.
Counterfactual Thinking
Imagining alternative scenarios and outcomes that might have happened, but didnt.
Illusory Correlation
Perception of a relationship where none exists, or perception of a stronger relationship than actually exists.
Illusion of Control
Perception of uncontrollable events as subject to one's control or as more controllable than they are.
Regression Toward the Average
The statistical tendency for extreme scores or extreme behavior to return to one's average.
Mistakenly attributing a behavior to the wrong source.
Attribution Theory
The theory of how people explain other's behavior; for example, by attributing it either to internal dispositions (enduring traits, motives, and attitudes) or to external situations.
Dispositional Attribution
Attributing behavior to the person's disposition and traits.
Situational Attribution
Attributing behavior to the environment.
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences upon others behavior. (also called correspondence bias, because we so often see behavior as corresponding to a disposition)
A self-conscious state in which attention focuses on oneself. It makes people more sensitive to their own attitudes and dispositions.
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
A brief that leads to its own fulfillment.
Behavioral Confirmation
A type of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby people's social expectations lead them to behave in ways that cause others to confirm their expectations.