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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Sociology
The scientific study of societies and social behavior.
Social problem
1. A condition that a significant number of people believe to be a problem.
2. A condition in which there is a sizeable difference between the ideals of a society and its actual achievements.
Social movements
Groups of people who have banded together to promote a particular cause.
Role
A set of expectations and behaviors associated with a social posistion.
Norm
A social rule that tells us whar behavior is acceptable in a certain situation and what is not.
Deviant
1. An individual who violates a social norm.
Social institutions
Relatively stable patterns of roles and behavior centered on the performance of important social tasks.
Social class
A catagory of people with similar shares of the things that are valued in a society.
Culture
The way of life of the people in a certain geographic area, particuarily their ideas, beliefs, values, patterns of thought, and symbols.
Subculture
A culture that exists within and is influenced by a larger culture but it has its own unique ideas and beliefs.
Society
A group of people in a geographic area who share common institutions and traditions.
Social structure
The organized patterns of human behavior and social relationships in a society.
Social psychological theories
A large group of theories that attempts to explain the effects of individuals and social groups on each other.
Functionalist perspective
A broad sociological approach that sees society as a delicate balance of parts, each with its own functiond and dysfunctions, and holds that most social problems result from the disorganization of society.
Function
The contribution of each part of society to the maintenance of a balanced order.
Dysfunction
The way a social phenomenon interferes with the maintenance of a balanced social order.
Social disorganization
The condition that exists when an institution or an entire society is poorly organized and fails to carry out essential social functions satisfactorily.
Conflict perspective
A broad sociological approach that sees the conflict between dfferent groups as a basic sociological process and holds that the principal source of social problems is the exploitation and oppression of one group by another.
Class conflict
The struggle for wealth, power, and prestige among the social classes.
World system theory
A theory that sees the global inequality to be the product of the exploitation of the poor nations by the rich ones.
Globalization
The process by which the nations of the world become more and more independent.
Feminist theory
An approach to understanding society and social behavior that focuses on the importance of gender and the inequalities based on it.
Patriarchy
A society dominated by men and run in their interests.
Sexism
Stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination based on gender.
Interactionism
A theory that explains behavior in terms of the way individuals define themseleves, their social relationships, and the world as a whole.
Definition of the situation
People's understanding of the conditions in which they find themselves.
Socialization
The process by which individuals learn ways of thinking and behaving in their culture.
Self-concept
Our image we have of who and what we are.
Behaviorism
A theory that holds behavior is learned from the rewards and punishments we recieve.
Personality theories
A group of theories that hold that social behavior is determined by differences in personality.
Personality theories
A group of theories that hold that social behavior is determined by difference in personality.
Personality
The relatively stable characteristics and traits that distinguish one person from another.
Biosocial perspective
A loose grouping of theories that emphasizes the importance of biology in determining social behavior.