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35 Cards in this Set

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Social control
the regulation of human behavior in any social group
Two types
Ideological Social Control
the regulation of human behavior by controlling IDEAS;

Agents (FERMSG)
Direct Social Control
the regulation of members of a group by controlling BEHAVIOR

-science & medicine
W, S&M, G
Three Processes of Social Control in Social Life
1. Internalizing Norms: we incorporate into our personalities standards of behavior

2. Structuring of Social Experience: institutions shape our experiences

3. The Use of Social Sanctions: we conform to avoid punishment
Five categories of activity:
1. Killing members of the group
2. Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group
3. Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part
4. Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group
5. Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group
Victim Discounting
society's tendency to view crimes as less socially significant if the victim is viewed as less worthy
-e.g. "black on black" crime
Differential Justice
whites are dealt with more leniently in the criminal justice system
Racial Profiling
a form of racism involving police focus on people of certain racial groups when seeking suspected criminals
Systems of meaning which include knowledge, beliefs, morals, laws, customs, and any other capabilities acquired by members of society

1. Symbols: anything that meaningfully represents something else
2. Technology: knowledge of how to adapt, make use of, and act upon physical environments and their material resources in order to satisfy human wants and needs
3. Ideologies: beliefs, values, and attitudes of a culture that underlie the status quo, or movements to change it
4. Norms: common guidelines for behavior
5. Values: the central beliefs and purposes of a society
6. Roles: the expectations attached to a social position
Two types and consists of STINVR
Material culture
tools, technology, etc
Immaterial Culture
values, beliefs, norms, religions, etc
the overall perspective from which one sees and interprets the world
Media contributes to:
-Cultural diffusion
-Agenda setting
Cultural diffusion
spreading of aspects of culture from one society to another
e.g. Fiji (plump used to be attractive until US tv images)
the focus, parameter, or boundary for discussing a particular event
Agenda Setting
filtering out large amounts of information while permitting only a few items to reach the audience
Social Change
alterations in the patterns of culture, structure, and social behavior over time
Sources of Social Change
-physical environment
-clashes over resources & values
-supporting values & norms (e.g. anti-gay rights legislation)
-diffusion: spread of culture from one place to another (e.g. Western TV, fast food)
-mass media
7 total
Social movements
sustained, organized efforts on the part of a relatively large number of people to bring about or resist change

-Rest upon a mass base of individuals, groups, and organizations linked by interaction
-Organize around a mix of political goals
-Rely on a shared collective identity
-Endure for a significant period of time
-Have long-lasting and far-reaching consequenc`es
-Have a well-defined and high level of internal organization
a set of cultural values, beliefs, and attitudes that motivate and justify the maintenance of the social order or movements to change it
Ideology provides:
-purpose for people to come together
-definition of the problem
-unity through a cause
Typologies of Social Movementsq
1. Transformative
2. Reform
3. Redemptive/Expressive
4. Revolutionary
Transformative Movement
seek a change in the total order as well as individuals in the order
e.g. Black Panthers teaching kids that "black is beautiful"
Reform Movement
intended to bring about partial change in the social order
e.g. Martin Luther King, Jr. and civil rights
Redemptive/Expressive Movement
efforts to bring about total change in the individuals in a movement
Revolutionary Movement
pursue objectives that aim to change society through challenging of fundamental values
e.g. American Revolutionary War
Theories of Social Movements
1. The Value-Added Model
2. Resource Mobilization Theory
3. Frame Alignment Theory
3 theories (VA, RM, FA)
The Value-Added Model
created by Neil J. Smelser
-economic theory applied to collective behavior:
each step in production increases the economic value of manufactured goods
Collective Behavior
spontaneous, unstructured ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that develop among a large number of people
e.g. rumors, fashions, hysteria
Watts riot
Detroit riots
Preconditions for Collective Behavior
1. Structural Conduciveness
2. Structural Strain: certain aspects of a social situation are out of joint
3. Growth and Spread of a Generalized Belief
4. Precipitating factors
5. Mobilization of participants for social action
6. Operation of social control
6 preconditions
Resource Mobilization Theory
Social movements are rational responses to social conditions intended to bring about social change
e.g. Freedom Summer
a structure of interpretation that allows individuals to understand their own experience in the context of the larger world around them
Frame Alignment
the connection between the interests, values, and beliefs of individuals and the goals, activities, and ideologies of a social movement
4 Processes in Frame Alignment
1. Frame bridging: get sympathetic people to join your movement
2. Frame amplification: getting people to understand why your frame is relevant to them
3. Frame extension: stepping outside of original goals and extending them to draw people into your movement
4. Frame transformation: getting rid of some of the original goals, adding new goals, and transforming into a new movement
The Life Course of a Social movement
1. Emergence: people express their dissatisfaction with existing conditions and the sentiment is shared by others
2. Coalescence: building the movement
3. Institutionalization: movement develops a formal organizational structure
4. Decline: usually occurs after success