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63 Cards in this Set

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The Sociological Imagination
the relationship between individual experiences and forces in the larger society that shape our actions;
-Biography: the individualistic component of a problem (e.g. class, race, sex, etc)
-History: the patterns of societal relationships of a particular time period
-Culture: the values and beliefs upheld by a society or group within society

-Empathy
-Personal trouble
-Public Issue
Biography
History
Culture
Empathy
the ability to mentally identify with another even though you have not shared the same experiences
Personal Trouble
private problems of individuals and the people with whom they associate

e.g. blacks in New Orleans too busy watching MTV to evacuate
Public issue
matters beyond an individual's control--caused by problems at the institutional level

e.g. blacks couldn't afford to get out or had no method of transport; stayed to protect what they own; fear of the unknown
Social Construction Theory
human actions are subject to historical forces and, thus, are subject to change;
cultural products are the result of human interaction

-Externalization
-Objectivation
-Internalization
Externalization
Objectivation
Internalization
Externalization
through social interaction, people create cultural products
Objectivation
these products take a reality of their own, becoming independent of those who created them
Internalization
through socialization, people learn the supposedly "objective facts" about reality
Race
a group of people who perceive themselves and are perceived by others as possessing certain hereditary traits
Perceived hereditary
Ethnicity
a group of people who perceive themselves and are perced by others as sharing cultural traits

-unique cultural traits
-a sense of community
-feeling of pride in one's culture
-ascribed membership from birth
-territoriality
Perceived cultural
Statistical Minority
a group of people smaller in number relative to other groups
Power Minority
a group of people singled out for inferior treatment simply due to their membership in that group
Oppression
a relationship of domination and subordination in which the dominant group benefits from the systematic abuse, exploitation, and injustice directed toward a subordinate group

3 forms:
-internalized: directed at oneself
-interpersonal: between individuals
-institutional: built into and supported by institutions; where more oppression in the US starts
3 I's.

"Passing"
Patterns of Intergroup Relations
-Pluralism
-Fusion
-Assimilation
-Legal Protection
-Internal Colonialism/Continued Subjugation Model
-Populations Transfer or Segregation
-Genocide
PFALIPG
Pluralism
racial and ethnic minorities are separate but have social equality

i.e. A+B+C = A+B+C
Fusion
the result when a majority and a minority group combine to form a new group

i.e. A+B+C = D
Assimilation
when a subordinate group takes on the characteristics of the dominant group

i.e. A+B+C = A

Takes longer when the following are true:
-the differences are large
-dominant group is not receptive
-arrival of subordinates occurs in a short period
-subordinates are concentrated
-arrival is recent and homeland is accessible
Legal Protection
similar to pluralism, but reinforced by political/legal means

i.e. Civil rights laws
Internal Colonialism/Continued Subjugation Model
Racial categories are kept separate and UNEQUAL for the benefit of the majority

i.e. slavery, migrant farm workers, sweatshops
Populations Transfer or Segregation
the physical and social separation of categories of people

i.e. Native Americans to reservations (Trail of Tears)
-Nazi Germany and concentration camps
-Hotel Rwanda
-Internment of Japanese Americans
Genocide
systematic annhilation of one category of people by another

i.e. Holocaust
-Bosnia
-Hotel Rwanda
Theories of Sociology
-The Structural Functionalist Perspective
-The Social Conflict Perspective
-The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
3 perspectives:
SF
SC
SI
The Structural Functionalist Perspective
society is a complex system whose parts work together to promote stability;
existence of social functions (consequences for a social pattern)
-Manifest functions: recognized and intended consequences
-Latent functions: unrecognized or unintended consequences (i.e. music from slavery, peanut butter)
-Social dysfunctions: undesirable consequences (i.e. country divided by Civil War)
Functions
The Social Conflict Perspective
society is a continuous power struggle among competing groups
-Power
-False consciousness
-Exploitation

e.g. corporate boss v worker
Power struggle
Power
the ability of a person to carry out her or his will despite opposition from others
Exploitation
the ability of the ruling class to take for itself what is produced by the workers;
not giving the worker the value of what they want
False consciousness
people hold beliefs they think promote their best interest when actually they do not
The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
society is the product of the everyday interaction of individuals
-Labeling theory
-Stereotypes
-Self-fulfilling Prophecy
-The Thomas Theorem
-Retrospective Labeling
Interaction
Labeling Theory
an attempt to explain why certain people are viewed as less worthy
Stereotypes
exaggerated images of the characteristics of a particular group; not generalizations
Retrospective Labeling
the process of re-casting one's past actions in light of new circumstances
The Thomas Theorem
"If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences."

Stresses the impact of situations on life, future action.
Self-fulfilling Prophecy
a person described as having certain characteristics begins to display those characteristics
Social institutions
the set of rules and relationships that govern the social activities in which we participate to meet our basic needs

i.e.
-the family
-education
-economy
-state
-media
FEEMS
Culture
-material culture: tools, technology, etc
-immaterial culture:
-symbols
-ideologies
-norms
-values
-roles
M
I: SINVR
Symbols
anything that meaningfully represents something else
Technology
knowledge of how to adapt, make use of, and act upon physical environments and their material resources in order to satisfy human wants and needs

e.g. ice houses
Ideologies
beliefs, values, and attitudes of a culture that underlie the status quo, or movements to change it
Propaganda
an organized program of publicity, selected info, etc used to propagate a doctrine, practice, etc

e.g. elections, going to war
Norms
Common guidelines for behavior
Values
the central beliefs and purposes of a society
Roles
the expectations attached to a social position
Cultural universals
customs and practices that occur in all societies

e.g.
-social institutions
-appearance
-activities
-customary practices (gift giving, cooking)
Social Stratification
a system in which categories of people are ranked in a hierarchy

e.g. wealth, race, job, education, religion, residential location, celebrities, gender, age, appearance, etc
Four Principles of Social Stratification
-characteristic of society, not individuals
-it persists over generations
-it is universal, but variable
-it involves inequality as well as beliefs about that inequality
SGUI
Economy
the social institution that creates, controls, and distributes the human and material resources of a society
Resources
anything that is valued in society

e.g. water, energy, food, money, shelter, clothing, education, transportation, healthcare
Life Chances
the material advantages or disadvantages that a particular member of a social category can expect to receive based on his/her status
Socioeconomic status
5 components:
-income
-wealth
-power
-occupational prestige
-schooling
IPOWS
Income
occupational wages or salaries and earnings from investments

-Employment
-Underemployment
-Primary labor market
-Secondary labor market
-Total discrimination
Employment
having a job
Underemployment
working at a job for which one is overqualified, involuntarily working part-time, or employed only occasionally
Primary labor market
jobs that provide extensive benefits to workers
Secondary labor market
jobs that provide minimal benefits to workers
Total discrimination
current and past discrimination in the labor market

-past: e.g. inferior schooling, poor health care, inadequate counseling, encumbrance by need to care for relatives, poor job record

-present: e.g. hiring practices, promotion practices, bias in lending & leasing
Segregation
the physical separation of two or more groups in housing, workplace, and social functions

-de jure: in law
-de facto: in reality
De jure
De facto
Power
the ability to achieve goals despite opposition from others

-authority
Authority
power that people perceive as legitimate rather than coercive
Occupational Prestige
the social value a particular occupation receives
Schooling
the level of education one receives impacts all other factors of socioeconomic status
Wealth
total amount of money and valuable goods that a person or a family owns
Poverty
-relative poverty: the deprivation of some people in relation to those who have more

-absolute poverty: a deprivation of resources that is life threatening
Two types: R & A
Social Exchange Theory
All human relationships formed after a cost/benefit analysis.

-Equitable relationship: costs and benefits of maintaining the relationship are equal