Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/83

Click to flip

83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the "powerful" questions that all sociologies, whether academic or practical, must try to answer?
-How do people deal with the overwhelming power of social structures they cannot see?

-How do they live as subjects amid such big and mysterious forces?

-How do they measure the meaning of their lives against the array of social differences they encounter?
What are the "powerful" questions that all sociologies, whether academic or practical, must try to answer?
-How do people deal with the overwhelming power of social structures they cannot see?

-How do they live as subjects amid such big and mysterious forces?

-How do they measure the meaning of their lives against the array of social differences they encounter?
What are the "powerful" questions that all sociologies, whether academic or practical, must try to answer?
-How do people deal with the overwhelming power of social structures they cannot see?

-How do they live as subjects amid such big and mysterious forces?

-How do they measure the meaning of their lives against the array of social differences they encounter?
According to Lemert, what is the central mystery of any sociology?
How human beings form relations with each other.
According to Lemert, Durkheim offered what as the first accepted definition of sociology?
"Social facts are things, that is, realities external to the individual."

--As important as individuals are to what goes on around them, there are also certain things that are inherently, and without exception, social in nature
According to Lemert, what is the central mystery of any sociology?
How human beings form relations with each other.
According to Lemert, what is the central mystery of any sociology?
How human beings form relations with each other.
What is the common name for the surprising inability of some people to use their native social competence?
False consciousness:

People are unable to understand the social things that cause their troubles
According to Lemert, Durkheim offered what as the first accepted definition of sociology?
"Social facts are things, that is, realities external to the individual."

--As important as individuals are to what goes on around them, there are also certain things that are inherently, and without exception, social in nature
According to Lemert, Durkheim offered what as the first accepted definition of sociology?
"Social facts are things, that is, realities external to the individual."

--As important as individuals are to what goes on around them, there are also certain things that are inherently, and without exception, social in nature
What are attributes of a "practical sociology"?
-the first and formative expression of sociological competence
-kind of knowledge that coherently accounts for the reality of a person's world
-a knowledge that informs in useful, powerful ways an individual's decisions to take liberating action

--Refers to those aspects of personal repertoire that form the basis for a person's confidence in her place, rights, and possibilities in the world
What is the common name for the surprising inability of some people to use their native social competence?
False consciousness:

People are unable to understand the social things that cause their troubles
What is the common name for the surprising inability of some people to use their native social competence?
False consciousness:

People are unable to understand the social things that cause their troubles
What are attributes of a "practical sociology"?
-the first and formative expression of sociological competence
-kind of knowledge that coherently accounts for the reality of a person's world
-a knowledge that informs in useful, powerful ways an individual's decisions to take liberating action

--Refers to those aspects of personal repertoire that form the basis for a person's confidence in her place, rights, and possibilities in the world
What are attributes of a "practical sociology"?
-the first and formative expression of sociological competence
-kind of knowledge that coherently accounts for the reality of a person's world
-a knowledge that informs in useful, powerful ways an individual's decisions to take liberating action

--Refers to those aspects of personal repertoire that form the basis for a person's confidence in her place, rights, and possibilities in the world
What are the two distinct states in which the practical knowledge that we possess seems to reside (according to Anthony Giddens)?
1. The practical-but-not-entirely-conscious

2. The discursive (something we are able and willing to talk about)
What are the two distinct states in which the practical knowledge that we possess seems to reside (according to Anthony Giddens)?
1. The practical-but-not-entirely-conscious

2. The discursive (something we are able and willing to talk about)
What does Pierre Bourdieu mean by his concept "habitus"?
A "system of durable, transposable dispositions."
--practices arise out of our practical disposition to obey the durable social things within us

--concept aims to account for why the collective habits of groups, or even of entier societies, work so conveniently well with the habits of individuals
What are the two distinct states in which the practical knowledge that we possess seems to reside (according to Anthony Giddens)?
1. The practical-but-not-entirely-conscious

2. The discursive (something we are able and willing to talk about)
Who does Lemert claim to be the most distinguished founder of professional sociology in Germany?
Max Weber

--convinced that science depended on the disciplining of the body and mind
What does Pierre Bourdieu mean by his concept "habitus"?
A "system of durable, transposable dispositions."
--practices arise out of our practical disposition to obey the durable social things within us

--concept aims to account for why the collective habits of groups, or even of entier societies, work so conveniently well with the habits of individuals
What does Pierre Bourdieu mean by his concept "habitus"?
A "system of durable, transposable dispositions."
--practices arise out of our practical disposition to obey the durable social things within us

--concept aims to account for why the collective habits of groups, or even of entier societies, work so conveniently well with the habits of individuals
Who does Lemert claim to be the most distinguished founder of professional sociology in Germany?
Max Weber

--convinced that science depended on the disciplining of the body and mind
Immanuel Wallerstein shows that the idea of the modern world as a system is built on what?
The historical realities of the modern world-economy.

--Since about 1500, capitalism increasingly organized its colonized world into a system in which core states drew resources from peripheral states that are rich in labor and natural wealth
Who does Lemert claim to be the most distinguished founder of professional sociology in Germany?
Max Weber

--convinced that science depended on the disciplining of the body and mind
Immanuel Wallerstein shows that the idea of the modern world as a system is built on what?
The historical realities of the modern world-economy.

--Since about 1500, capitalism increasingly organized its colonized world into a system in which core states drew resources from peripheral states that are rich in labor and natural wealth
Mannheim invented what out of his conviction that all ideas arise from the social conditions of those who think them?
The "sociology of knowledge"

--all thought about the world is largely determined by the social position of the thinker (ie neither action nor thought is the pure invention of the free individual)
Mannheim invented what out of his conviction that all ideas arise from the social conditions of those who think them?
The "sociology of knowledge"

--all thought about the world is largely determined by the social position of the thinker (ie neither action nor thought is the pure invention of the free individual)
What is a modern world-economy, according to Lemert?
A global system in which the powerful core states exploit the resource-rich, but politically weak, periphery
What is a modern world-economy, according to Lemert?
A global system in which the powerful core states exploit the resource-rich, but politically weak, periphery
Which school was the first US research university to offer a Ph.D. in sociology?
University of Chicago
What was the commitment of sociologists at the turn of the nineteenth century in their conception of sociology?
They were committed to sociology as a way of interpreting and as a way of changing the world
Which school was the first US research university to offer a Ph.D. in sociology?
University of Chicago
Immanuel Wallerstein shows that the idea of the modern world as a system is built on what?
The historical realities of the modern world-economy.

--Since about 1500, capitalism increasingly organized its colonized world into a system in which core states drew resources from peripheral states that are rich in labor and natural wealth
What was the commitment of sociologists at the turn of the nineteenth century in their conception of sociology?
They were committed to sociology as a way of interpreting and as a way of changing the world
How did Karl Marx see industrialization?
Saw capitalism as nothing but an evil economic practice determining all else in social life

Attacked the evils of economic exploitation

-thought capitalism inevitably produced class conflict

-the exploitation of workers comes about because workers belong to a different class of men and women than their bosses do

-life chances of workers determined by their economic vulnerability to the dominant class

-life chances of dominant class are higher because they own or manage the resources and factories
How did Karl Marx see industrialization?
Saw capitalism as nothing but an evil economic practice determining all else in social life

Attacked the evils of economic exploitation

-thought capitalism inevitably produced class conflict

-the exploitation of workers comes about because workers belong to a different class of men and women than their bosses do

-life chances of workers determined by their economic vulnerability to the dominant class

-life chances of dominant class are higher because they own or manage the resources and factories
How did Max Weber see industrialization?
argued against Marx's idea that capitalism produces class conflict

-modern society is at least as much a result of the attitudes, values, and cultures of modern people as of their economic greed

--new world-economy as "iron cage" and "disenchanted"

--capitalists = "sorcerer's apprentice"
How did Max Weber see industrialization?
argued against Marx's idea that capitalism produces class conflict

-modern society is at least as much a result of the attitudes, values, and cultures of modern people as of their economic greed

--new world-economy as "iron cage" and "disenchanted"

--capitalists = "sorcerer's apprentice"
Mannheim invented what out of his conviction that all ideas arise from the social conditions of those who think them?
The "sociology of knowledge"

--all thought about the world is largely determined by the social position of the thinker (ie neither action nor thought is the pure invention of the free individual)
What is a modern world-economy, according to Lemert?
A global system in which the powerful core states exploit the resource-rich, but politically weak, periphery
Which school was the first US research university to offer a Ph.D. in sociology?
University of Chicago
What was the commitment of sociologists at the turn of the nineteenth century in their conception of sociology?
They were committed to sociology as a way of interpreting and as a way of changing the world
How did Karl Marx see industrialization?
Saw capitalism as nothing but an evil economic practice determining all else in social life

Attacked the evils of economic exploitation

-thought capitalism inevitably produced class conflict

-the exploitation of workers comes about because workers belong to a different class of men and women than their bosses do

-life chances of workers determined by their economic vulnerability to the dominant class

-life chances of dominant class are higher because they own or manage the resources and factories
How did Max Weber see industrialization?
argued against Marx's idea that capitalism produces class conflict

-modern society is at least as much a result of the attitudes, values, and cultures of modern people as of their economic greed

--new world-economy as "iron cage" and "disenchanted"

--capitalists = "sorcerer's apprentice"
What are the "powerful" questions that all sociologies, whether academic or practical, must try to answer?
-How do people deal with the overwhelming power of social structures they cannot see?

-How do they live as subjects amid such big and mysterious forces?

-How do they measure the meaning of their lives against the array of social differences they encounter?
According to Lemert, what is the central mystery of any sociology?
How human beings form relations with each other.
According to Lemert, Durkheim offered what as the first accepted definition of sociology?
"Social facts are things, that is, realities external to the individual."

--As important as individuals are to what goes on around them, there are also certain things that are inherently, and without exception, social in nature
What is the common name for the surprising inability of some people to use their native social competence?
False consciousness:

People are unable to understand the social things that cause their troubles
What are attributes of a "practical sociology"?
-the first and formative expression of sociological competence
-kind of knowledge that coherently accounts for the reality of a person's world
-a knowledge that informs in useful, powerful ways an individual's decisions to take liberating action

--Refers to those aspects of personal repertoire that form the basis for a person's confidence in her place, rights, and possibilities in the world
What are the two distinct states in which the practical knowledge that we possess seems to reside (according to Anthony Giddens)?
1. The practical-but-not-entirely-conscious

2. The discursive (something we are able and willing to talk about)
What does Pierre Bourdieu mean by his concept "habitus"?
A "system of durable, transposable dispositions."
--practices arise out of our practical disposition to obey the durable social things within us

--concept aims to account for why the collective habits of groups, or even of entier societies, work so conveniently well with the habits of individuals
Who does Lemert claim to be the most distinguished founder of professional sociology in Germany?
Max Weber

--convinced that science depended on the disciplining of the body and mind
Immanuel Wallerstein shows that the idea of the modern world as a system is built on what?
The historical realities of the modern world-economy.

--Since about 1500, capitalism increasingly organized its colonized world into a system in which core states drew resources from peripheral states that are rich in labor and natural wealth
Mannheim invented what out of his conviction that all ideas arise from the social conditions of those who think them?
The "sociology of knowledge"

--all thought about the world is largely determined by the social position of the thinker (ie neither action nor thought is the pure invention of the free individual)
What is a modern world-economy, according to Lemert?
A global system in which the powerful core states exploit the resource-rich, but politically weak, periphery
Which school was the first US research university to offer a Ph.D. in sociology?
University of Chicago
What was the commitment of sociologists at the turn of the nineteenth century in their conception of sociology?
They were committed to sociology as a way of interpreting and as a way of changing the world
How did Karl Marx see industrialization?
Saw capitalism as nothing but an evil economic practice determining all else in social life

Attacked the evils of economic exploitation

-thought capitalism inevitably produced class conflict

-the exploitation of workers comes about because workers belong to a different class of men and women than their bosses do

-life chances of workers determined by their economic vulnerability to the dominant class

-life chances of dominant class are higher because they own or manage the resources and factories
How did Max Weber see industrialization?
argued against Marx's idea that capitalism produces class conflict

-modern society is at least as much a result of the attitudes, values, and cultures of modern people as of their economic greed

--new world-economy as "iron cage" and "disenchanted"

--capitalists = "sorcerer's apprentice"
How did Emile Durkheim see industrialization?
believed industrial life, and the urban environment that supports it, aggravates differences and breaks apart the deep need people have to live in a morally cohesive community

-saw loss of social cohesion as most fundamental threat of the new world order

-"anomie": absence of moral rules able to instruct the individual in the ways of the world
Robert Merton found what appealing in the ideas of Karl Mannheim?
the idea that knowledge and ideas are rooted in society
According to Lemert, what is the name among professional sociologists of the study of enduring structured relations among men and women in a structured world?
Sociology
What is the definition of "social structures"
unrelentingly large and powerful social forces that so often determine the ways and means of individuals
Do North Americans tend to think of themselves as colonizers and bullies?
No
How does Judith Stacey see the way families are actually constituted today?
System vastly more complex and irregular than the idealized traditional family of two biological parents and a certain, usually modest number of kids

-people live together and raise kids in all kinds of oddly divorced and recombinant households
What branch of social sciences studies primarily markets?
Economics
What branch of social sciences studies primarily political systems?
Political science
Which studies primarily culture?
Cultural anthropology and many students of literature and the arts
Which branch of social science studies markets, political systems, culture, and social world?
Sociology
How does Lemert conceive of power?
the means by which social structures do this not-exactly-fair work of sorting people according to the few or many life-chances they get

-the social energy of structures

-the determining force that causes some people to get less and some more of whatever is considered desirable in a social world
What is a bureaucracy?
a structured system in which the basic rule is that those with the bureau are considered the legitimate rulers of some or another organized sphere so long as they follow the rules of the office

--Weber saw the problem with bureaucracies is that the reasonableness of the rules of authority usually fades as rules proliferate, creating objections
What is Theda Skocpol's basic idea in States and Revolutions?
revolutionary social change occurs (when it does) not primarily because of the agency of individuals (not even large numbers of them joined in collective actions), but because something world-shaking happens to the social structures

-individuals in revolutions act not as free-moving agents, but as embedded members of a series of newly formed classes and political organizations in and outside of the government
What is the name of the process whereby a social individual learns the rules governing normal social behavior in a given social situation?
Socialization
What is a social role? What basic idea is it built upon?
Social role builds on the idea that individuals are well-socialized when they understand the script or scripts society provides for their actions in a particular social scene
What two things was Talcott Parsons' socialization theory meant to explain?
1. Culture
2. Roles

-Theorized that there must be roles in which some peopel are given instructions to work hard at a paying job, and some other people are assigned to provide love and care in cultures where work, love, and caretaking are valued

i.e. Men work and women take care of the house
What is culture?
A depository of values, norms, rules, even manners, from which individuals may withdraw what they need according to the situation
What does Patricia Collins mean by her concept of a matrix of domination?
People become who they become by measuring themselves against the advantages of their race, class, and gender

People experience and resist oppression on three levels:

1. the level of personal biography
2. the group or community level of the cultural context created by race, class, and gender
3. the systemic level of social institutions
What does it mean to be a postcolonial?
people or countries that have been colonized by others previously
What is an opportunity structure?
variations in the degree to which a society's political and economic structures either limit opportunities for protest or tolerate protests
What is globatlization according to Lemert?
the social facts of life that allow a person to travel by jet or the Internet to any part of the globe, there to find people who speak a common language (usually English) and think of the world in remarkably similar terms
What is a globalist? What is a transformationalist?
A globalist ...

A transformationalist posits that globalization is a significant shift that affects local places, but questions the inevitability of its impact
What does Lemert believe to be the most fundamental lesson of the sociological life?
The individual who intends to live well must being, not with grand accomplishment, but with the simple acceptance of what comes across the path.

An attitude that gives us a chance to imagine the world as it is and might be, thus to change what we can.