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159 Cards in this Set

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The power of the early Roman father referred to as "potestas" over his children was absolute and continued
throughout the father's life over male children and until female children married.
One of the effects of the extensive war and imperialism on the Roman family was
to increase the power of women when men are absent
As compared to the other cultures of that time, the early Christians _____________ the importance of marriage and the family
decreased
The status of women among the arly Christians was
paradoxical with greater equality in the early centuries (to 500 CE) giving way to oppression and misogyny in later centuries (800-1500 CE)
Among the medievel English, sons reached the age of majority at which time the father lost considerable power when the son reached the age of
12
Which of the following is an example of the instrumental side of marriage?
the husband stayed home from work to take care of a child who is too sick to attend day care.
Which of the following is true regarding sex ands exuality in the Victorian times, partiuclarly in middle-class households?
middle-class housewives were advised to cover table legs with long skirts and to have books written by men separated from the books written by women.
The original purpose of the first wave of the feminist movement in 1848 was to obtain
marital and economic rights for women
The instrumental duties and rights stayed similar in the evolution from Owner-Property to HEad-Complement marital structures. what was the primary difference? In the the head-complement structure,
husbands are expected to consider his wife's wishes in decision making
In the Senior Partner-Junior Partner marital structure,
the husband remains the primary income producer for the family and the wife's income is considered secondary
According to Professor EKating, the following comments are most representative of which category on the budget philosophy continuum?
"Save now because you never know what tomorrow will bring"
"Save first, pay cash and enjoy it without payments"
"Consumer interst is a waste of money"
Functional saver
If you caharge $1000 to your credit card and pay just he minimum monthly payments, how much interest will you pay by tht time you pay off the debt?
$2000
In class (and on the "money" handout) we identified three big mistakes people often make in managing their money. This is not one...
Overcommit on varibale expenses
The two basic kinds of retirement plans are
Defined benefit and defined contribution
According to Tobias, author of The Only Investment Guide You'll Ever Need, individuals should nto borrow through...
pawn shops, tax refund loads, credit cards...all of the above
Why was Oct. 24, 2003 chosen as the first "take Back your time day" in the US?
it is approximately nine weeks before the end othe year. It was chosen to emphasize that Americans work approximately nene weeks more tahn our counterparts in western Europe.
Good communication requires some shared agreements. Which of the following was (were) discussed in class as items about which a couple should agrees?
about what to take, how to talk, when to talk...all of the above.
When having a disagreeement with a partner, changing the topic belongs to which communication style?
style 2- directive
Among the generalizations found in the communication literature is the importance of...
speaking for and being true to your own Self.
The purpose of Style 2 (directive communication is
power and control
Style 4 (Open) communication involves the intention to
learn about yourself and your partner, deal with the differences between the two of you, develop more stisfying patterns of relating together...all of the above.
The ultimate power in a relationship is...
to end the relationship
Legal marriage in all states requries which of the following?
a marriage license, that the marriage be officiated by a person authorized by the state.
In Minnesota a person can be legally married at age 16 or 17?
with a judge's approval
Minnesota law provides a paternity registry for men. Which of the following is not true about it?
Men submit a blood sample to prove taht a given child is or is not their biological child.
Marriage between first cousin in the United States are
permitted in approximately 19 states
An annulemtn is
a declaration that no valid marriage ever took place
When men workers are studied in the sociology of work, reserachers typically use
a job model focusing on working conditions, opportunities and problems in trying to understand men's behavior at work and their expectations
Zavella (Cited by Aulette) interviewed Chicanas who worked in canneries in California about the tensions between work and family. The women had been encouraged and socialized to become full time housewives and omothers but were working in the cannery. What did Zavella find was the fypical reaction of thes women regarding their working?
they felt that working for pay helped their families and was, therefore, an extension of their roles as good wives and mothers.
Aulette cites the work of Rosabeth Moss Kanter who idenfitied five major effects of work on family. Whichh of the following is the difinition of "Worldview" she includes as one of these?
The values and ideas promoted at work that influence the emploees and their relationships in families.
Most research comparing children of employed mothers and children of mothers who do not work for wages shows that working mothers have ____________ on school achievement, IQ test scores, and emotional and social development.
no impact
When teenagers work it affects their relationships with their parents. Research has found whcih of the following?
female teens workers report an decreased closeness with parents while male teen workers report increased closeness.
Research on housework shows that time spent on housework varies by gender and employment. All of the following are true
Women do more housework than men, The unemployed do mor ehousework than the employed, the amount of housework woemn do declined from 1965- 1995. the amount of housework men do increased from 1965-1995.
Children in one-parent households are likely to perform _____________ children in two-parent households.
a much larger share of housework than
Interviews about the work down by people who purchases, prepare and serve food to their families show taht they consider it
an act of love
Aulette reports that ________ has become the mos tsignificant work of the American housewife
transportation
Hochschild (Cited by Aulette) studied husbands and wives about the division of housework. Which of the following is/are among the strategies men use to resist the work equally?
passively avoid taking responsibility by forgetting things, doing tasks in an unskilled way, and waiting to be asked. Resducing the need for the tasks by redefining the situation ("Let's go to MCDonald
s for dinner") Increases emotional support for his wife without doing more housework.
Human sexuality compared with sexuality among other animals is
marked by more richness, plasticity and diversity.
Researchers surveyed college students in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s about love. They asked the students if they would marry someone whom they did not love. The earlier research (1970s and 1980s) indicated that
Men were more likely than women to say no.
Illous (cited by Aulette) interviewed people about th eimages and experiences they associated with love. Her observations of what our culture tells us is romantic prompted her to conclude that our images of love are often associated with
consumption
Michael and colleagues researched attitudes towards sex in the 1990s. They found that people could be grouped into three categories. The largest category consisting of about half of the respondents is called
relational
Research on teen sexual behavior indicates taht women are twice as likely to name ______ as the reason for first intercourse and men are twice as likely to name ________.
affection...curiosity
Accordint to the doctrine of couverture
married women could not own property, married women had to turn over any wages thaey earned to their husbands. if someone wished to sue a married women, he or she must sue the woman's husband.
Since the 1950s the median age at first marriage in the united states
has risen for both men and women
communication research on conversations between men and women indicates taht ________ take more; ____ interrupt more;____ ask more questions; and _________ use more qualifiers
men...men...women...women
What is the status of same-sex marriage in the world?
a few countries allow same-sex marriage and several others recognize same-sex unions.
THe most recent research cited in Aulette indicates that approximately _ percent of the population cohabited before a first marriage.
50
According to serach cited in Aulette, women has more power in dating relationships when they
have more resources
What is the general relationship between income and divorcec?
Lower income people have higher divorce rates.
Which of the following is true about the relationship between reace and ethnicity and divorce?
chinese have very low rates of divorce.
Before 1970, divorce lawas in the United States were based on the concept of
fault
After a divorce among the traditional Inuit (Eskimos)
ex-spouses are obligated to treat each other in a friendly and supportive manner.
Who is more likely to initiate a divorce?
at least two-thirds of divorces are inititated by women.
Sociologists have found that divorce is beneficial for children when
the marriage had a high level of conflict.
Under the Owner-Property Marital Structure, husband's right included a wife's obligation to...
please her husband and care for his needs and those of the household. to obey her husband in all things, bear children that could carry on her husband's name, train the chilfren so taht hey would reflect credit on her husband.
How does the working status of wives impact the power in the marriage?
working wives have more marital power than full-time homemakers.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding an Equal-Partners marriage structure?
the husband's career takes priority.
Which of the following acts is legally defined as adultery in Minnesota today?
A married man having sex with a married woman, a single man having sex with a married woman.
What percentage of American households carry a credit card balance from month to month?
55%
Professor Keating commends a Cash Flow Management Plan (or Budget) wiht _____ categories including:_________
five: fixed expenses, variable expenses, short-term savings, medium-term savings, long term savings.
OUr economic system encourages
the accumulation of captial (positive net worth) and consumerism and debt (negative net worth)
People who participate in the Voluntary Simplicity movement often advocate for...
working to live instead of living to work.
In the five-step communication process, at which stage to things often start to go wrong?
interpretations
Style 2 communication includes several types of talk. Which of these has ome positive functions?
control talk
Which communicaiton style demonstrates desire and readiness to explore one's own attitudes and behavior with an intention to learn about oneself as well as one's partner?
Style 4- Open
The principle of Power is
"you cannot force a perosn to do what you want"
among the generalizations found int he communication literature is the importance of...
speaking for and being true to your own Self.
When referring the "The Big D" which of the following refers to "D" for which women should be prepared?
divorce, death, disability, destitution.
The family and medical leave act covers
all public workplaces but only those private workplaces wiht more than fifty employees
Flextime workers compared to nonflextime workers
earn less pay on the average.
Hochschild (cited by Aulette) studied the "Time Bind" people experience between work and family. She found thatt people spend long hours at work ebcause
they need the money, of economic insecurity and the fear of being downsized. they like work and find it rewarding, sometimes more rewardin than their families.
Aulette cities the work of Rosabeth Moss kanter who idenfitied five major effects of work on family. Which of the following is the definition of "absorpiveness of an occupation" she includes as one of these?
the extent to which a job drawas in an employee and his or her family members.
The largest single occupation in the United States is
housewife
Research cited by Aulette indicated taht when women start to work outside the home,
children are more likely than husbands to do some of the chores previously done byt he women.
because of changes in technology since 19000, the total number of hours doing housework has
remained about the same because the tasks have changed.
Romero (cited by Aulette) identified a number of strategies Chicana domestic workers used to maintain control over their work. Their overriding goal is to
move away from sellint their labor and toward selling a service.
Among ancient Greeks love meant
a sexual but not an exmotional relationship
Illouz (cited by Aulette) interviewed peole about the images and experiences they associated with love. The answers clustered into three cateogories...
travel, nature, eating
Among the IK in East Africa, the primary form of sexuality is
masturbation
Michael and colleagues researched attitudes toward sex in the 1990s. They foudn that people could be grouped into three categories...
Traditional, relational, recreational.
Thompson (cited by Aulette) interviewed working-class teen women about their sexual experience. She foudn that young women were engaging in coitus at an earlier age than previously. She also found that these young women
report a lack of enjoyment associated with sex.
The Married Women's Property Las passed in the 19th century establisehed the legal assumption that
wives were to provide services to her husband in exchange for his obligation to provide economic support to her.`
Most people marry within their social class. In cases where people amrry someone of another social class the tendency is for
women to marry up and men to marry down.
When a marital contract is ended through a divorce in the United States,
the state makes the final decision over nearly all arrangements.
marriage law requires that a couple...
have a sexual intercourse.
Which of the following most closely describes Japansese Americans view of marriage? They think that
American marriages are whimsical and unstable.
What is the relationship between involvement and power in a dating relationship?
for both men and women, the less the involvement in a relatiohsip, the great the power in that relationship.
All of the following are grounds for divorce that may be used by a couple with a covenant marriage
adultery, living separately for two or more years, irreconcilable differences.
Among the traditiona INuit (commonly called Eskimos)
either the husband or wife could decide on a divorce which was accomplised wihtout ceremoney when they stopped living together.
Who is more likely to initiate a divorce?
at least two-thirds of divorces are initiated by women.
After a divorce (on average)
women experience a decline while men have an improvement in their financial situations
Which of the following is true regarding remarriage after divorce?
men are more likely to remarry than women.
The majority __% of women in the United States are in the labor force
59
When men workers are studied the ______ model is used, while when women workers are studied the ___ model is used
job, gender
Sidel grouped young women into three categories
New American Dreamers, Neotraditionalists, and Ousiders.
New American Dreamers
plans to have it all
Neotraditionalists
these women had considered the interaction between work and family. They too wished to have interesting and well-paid work, byut they named family as their top priority
Ousiders
They felt they had lettle chance of success in any areana, inluding work and family, and they could not imagine negotiating the two
Explanations for why women had entered the labor force in the twentieth century can be divided into three groups
supply side, demand side, and social structural.
_________ and _______ are two aspects of social structure taht have been identified as important factors in relation to the increasing number of women in the workforce
improved birth control and increased life span
Kathleen Gerson studied 60 women about choose between work and family and found that their choice was largely the result of two influences
early childhood experiences and constgraints and opportunities they encountered as adults
Four factors that tend to push women into the domestic path
women were influenced by their experiences within their families. Their experience in the workplace. The ability of the husband to provide an adequate income. Women considered the social rewards and costs of domesticity.
Gerson grouped men into three groups
men who maintained the bredawinning role, Men who chose autonomy over parenthood. "the rebels". And third "The involved father"
Rosabeth Moss Kanter cites five ways in which the organization of paid work affects families
apsorptiveness of an occupation- the extent to which a job draws in an employee and his or her family members.
Time ane timing- the amount of time a job requires and when the time is demanded.

Income (or lack of income, for example, if a breadwinner becomes unemployed) provided by the job.
Worldview- the values and ideas promoted at work that influence the employee in his or his behavior at home.

Emotional climate- the social-psychological influences at work taht affect employees and their relationships in families.
________________ seem to be especially likely to be advanataged. _________ are more independent, achievement-oriented, and socially compent, with more flexible sex-role perceptions, better famiy relations, and higher self-esteem.
daughters of working mothers
In about _____ of marriages do wives ear more than their husbands
one-quarter
_________ can be defined as the values a given group holds, the norms they follow and the materials good they create
culture
In 1993 President Clinton signed the family and Medical Leave Bill, giving employees the right to take up to _____ weeks of unpaid leave from their jobs in a one year period of time.
12 weeks
The problems in the work of a housewive
montonous, never-ending, lonely.
Employed women do ____ housework than unemployed men.
more
Reasons children should housework
it is an important part of helping children build character and learn responsibility, it is the child's duty to help out.
Devault conclueds that eating and the work involved in feeding families is
"at the center of family life and sociablity"
Research shows that working mothers have higher self-esteem and less depression than housewives, but they also have more ______
anxiety
______- appears to be a powerful example of gender inewuality
housework
________ is the process by which children learn how to understande people in their society and what is expected of them.
Socialization
Spencer Cahilll cited three sources of gender socialization:
audult models; cultral artifacts like gender models in books, television, and toys; and peers
"The family is a primary areana in which men exercise their patriarachal power over women's labor and that time spent on housework can be fruitefully used as a measure of power relations in the home"
Heidi Hartmann
Socialist feminism is a theoretical framework that seeks to synethesize two major theoretical paradigms,
Marxism and radical feminsim
______- a concern for the conomic factor in understanding the oppression of women. A major component of a Marxist outlook is the recognition of exonomics as an essential factor in the consideration of all human interactions.
marxist theory
Strategies women use to resolve the problems with housework
marrying men who share the work, actively trying to change husbands who do not share the work, passively trying to manipulate their husbands, beocming "supermoms" and cutting back on work, marriage, self and children
Strategies men use to get outta housework
they share the work equally, or they resist by disaffiliating themelves, reducing the need for the tasks, substituting offerings, and selectively encouraging their wives.
"Confucian patriarchy (is) characterized by the Rule of Three Obedience, which emphasized women's subordination to men:
A woman shold obey her father before her marriage, her husband after marriage and her son(s) after her husband's death.
Mary Romero states taht domestic work is characterized by four issues
the work involves the extractionof emotional labor from the maid, mistresses use various methods to maintain superiorty and control while creating an informal and apparently companionable relationship, domestic wokers use various strategies to minimize the subjugation and unwelcome familiarity they face on the job. the work involves a constant struggle between employer and employee over the control of the work process
Rollo may western society four forms that the real human experience of love is blended
Lust, sex, Libido, eros
Our culture tells us how to translate our emotional experiences in four ways
1) provides us with meaning for our feelings and physical arousal,
2) tells us how to manage and contrl our feeling in order to conform to cultural norms,
3) tells us how to measure the intensity,
4) provides us with symbols to display our emotions
Illouz says taht our images of romance are often associated with _________
consumption
_____- was the first state to decriminalize homosexual behavior
Illinois
Sociological research can be divided into two approaches:
those that collect quantitative data taht report numbers and those that collect qualitative data that describe and try to undertsand the meaning of those numbers
Based on the three groups of sexuality traditionals are
people that says religion always guided their sexual activities, homosexuality was is wrong, abortion should be restricted
Based on the three groups of sexuality relationals are
largest group, they believed that extramartial sex is wrong, premartial sex is ok
based on the three groups of sexuality recreational is
one quarter. sex does not have to be connected to love, they strongly oppose restrictions on pornography
Gail Wyatt said sexuality is a product of three important facts
socialization, economics, and beliefs
The top three attractions of sex are
vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and watching one's partner undress
who cointed the term heterosexual and homosexual
karl kertbeny
What was the case that made abortion legal
Roe v. Wade
the ____ amendment, allows staes to prohibit the use of public funds to pay for abortions of poor women, unless it can be proven that an abortion is necessary to save the mother's life or that he pregnancy was a result of rape or incest
The Hyde Amendment
_____- is a steriod that comes in the form of a pill. forty-nine days of her last menstrual period, it causes her body to expel the embryo
RU486
Women should not only have the right to choose abortion but also should have the right to bring a pregnancy to term within a health care system taht provides them to prenatal, maternal, and pediatric care
third-wave feminists
Marraige certified by a Justice of Peace or judge. these partners can claim each ohter for tax and insurance benefits. if they decide to separate they must go through Family Court.
Civil Union partners
__________- Act defines marraige as only same sex unions and allows states to ignore marraige taht hasve occurred between same-sex partners and other states
Defense of Marriage Act
Dorothy Stetson observes that there have been three major periods in the United states...
doctrine of couverture, the second period was marked by the passage of the Married Women's Property Lwas, and the thrid identified marriage as a shared partnership in which spouses would have equal and overlapping responsibilities for everything
THe tendency for women to marry up is called
hypergamy
1990, fundamentalist Christians, Bill McCartney. The centerpices of this group's message is that men need to reclaim leadership of their families
Promise Keepers
The marriage squeeze theory
In the united States, women tend to marry men who are two or three years older than themseleves. If the population is increasing, there are more younger peole than there are older people. This means the men who seek younger partners have a larger pool from which to choose than women
sociologist refer to the period between singlehood and marriage as
courtship
The two most significant characteristics of courtship today are the
delay of first marriage and the increase of cohabitation
The most of what a person has means they are less likely to cohabit
education
sociologist group families in two groups
family or orientaiton and family of procreation
_______-- is the study of size, compostion, and distribution of human population
demography
_____ people are more likely to devorce
people at the lower end of the income range
Factors that correlat with divorce are
income, education, race ethnicity.
antidivorce rights factions believe taht _______ is the only reason for divorce
adultery
A new type of marriage is _________ marriages, it startes taht the only reason you can divorce is adulter, commison of felony that resutlf in imprisonment or dealth, adandonment by the other spouse fo rone year or more, physical or sexual abuse of the spouse of child, living separately from the spouse of two or more years, habitual alcohol or drug abuse, cruel treatment or ill treatment
covenant
In the Inuit society when couples wanted to get divorced they
just stoped livingi together, they deactivated their relationship
Ahrons found that five transitions comprised the divorce experience:
decision, announcement, separation , formal and aftermath
__________ occurs when people are perceived to be different and less worthy than other people because of their appearance or behavior
social stigmatization
three areas taht interfered with the ability of no-fault divorce lawas are
marriage, the labor market and divorce proceedings
Alimoney is also called
spousal support
a term used by Ahrons and Roy Rodgers about remarriage is
complex binuclear family