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100 Cards in this Set

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Disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. The disability originates before the age of 18. What disability is described?
Mental Retardation
Often the first sign of mental retardation is _________.
Language.
___% have language skills equal to their cognitive level when it comes to MR or LD.
50%
___% comprehension skills equal to mental age, but production is poorer when it comes to MR or LD.
25%
___% deficits in both production and comprehension relative to mental age when it comes to MR or LD.
25%
What is different for MR or LD people in the areas of Syntax and Morphology?
Shorter, less complex sentences, fewer elaborations, reach MLU levels at later mental age than children with typical development.
MR or LD people learn grammatical morphemes in about the same order as normally developing peers.... T or F?
True.
T or F: research has shown that children with MR have more articulation errors, but the errors don't stay as long as typically developing children.
False. the errors stay longer than typically developing children.
For children with MR or LD, it is easier to learn _______ than syntax.
Semantics.
What is another name for Down Syndrome?
Trisomy 21.
Name some symptoms of Down Syndrome.
Mild to moderate MR
Hypotonia
Facial characteristics
Hyperflexibility of joints
Heart and respiratory prob.
ear anomalies
Oral-motor difficulties
Deficits in speech, language and hearing.
Language development follows the normal sequence in general- however it is ______.
??? see study slides, pg. 2 ???
Fragile X happens because of what factor?
genetics
Fragile X is more prevelant in females: T or F?
False. 1 in 8000 females, 1 in 4000 males.
What are some characteristics of Fragile X?
Moderate mental retardation and dysmorphic features.
What are some dysmorphic features involved with Fragile X?
Elongated face
Highly arched palate
Larger than average head size
Enlarged ears
Flat feet
Large hands with hyperextensible finger joints
Hypotonia
T or F: Language delay is not very common.
False. It is very common.
Fragile X chilfren have a particular delay in what three things?
Syntax, sequencing, and organization.
Does Rett's Syndrome affect more girls or boys?
Girls.
There is apparent normal delay in children who have Rett's up to __ to ___ months of age.
5 to 18 months.
After 5 months of normal development, a child who has Rett's will have the onset of what abnormal things?
Deceleration of head growth, loss of purposeful hand movements, loss of social engagement, poorly coordinated gait and truck movements, severely impaired language and cognitive development.
What are some characteristics of Autism?
Qualitative impairment in social interaction and communication, restricted patterns in behavior, interest, and activities and delays or abnormal functioning before age 3 in social development, language used for social communication or play.
Is language the same or varied for children with Autism?
Varied.
"It is the postiion of the American Speech-Lnaguage-Hearing Association that SLPs play a _______ and ______ role in the development of literacy for children and adolescents with communication disorders..."
Critical and Direct
According to the ASHA guidelines, appropriate roles for SLPs include (but not limited to):
Preventing written language problems by fostering language acquisition and emergent literacy
Identifying children at risk for reading and writing problems
assessing reading and writing
Providing intervention and documenting outcomes for reading and writing
advocating for effective literacy practice
Providing assitance to general education teachers
Reading includes two things, what are they?
1) Word Recognition
2) Listening Comprehension
What are the components of language comprehension?
Semantics and grammar, text processing, background knowledge, verbal reasoning, metacognition.
What are the components of word recognition?
Phonological awareness, decoding, sight recognition.
According to the hierarchy shown in class, risk for reading disorders occurs in what stage?
Normal language, late talker, late talker with family history, late talker with family history and receptive problems.
The end of late talker (see pg. 4 in review slides).
What is phonological awareness?
One's sensitivity to the sound structure of a word.
Phonological Awareness is measured by what three things?
1) Rhyming
2) Blending
3) Deletion tasks
Good phonological awareness = what kind of reader?
Good reader.
Poor phonological awareness = what kind of reader?
Poor reader.
What component of reading are SLPs most likely to be involved?
Phonological awareness.
Approximately __% of children with a phonological awareness deficit in kindergarten had a deficit in word recognition in 2nd and 4th grades.
45%
Approximately ___% - ___% of children with a phonological awareness deficit and a family history of reading disabilities had problems in word recognition in 2nd and 4th grades.
60% - 65%
What does Tier 1 of the Response to Intervention hierarchy contain?
General education
Progess monitoring
Includes ALL students
What does Tier 2 of the Response to Intervention hierarchy contain?
Targeted interventions
Group and Individual
Progress Monitoring
Includes 15-30%
What does Tier 3 of the Response to Intervention hierarchy contain?
Special Education
Includes 5% of student population
In order to catch chilren who may be at risk for a reading disorder, SLPs should ______ them at a young age.
Screen
When getting a language sample, what are two things to remember?
1) Fewer limitations on the child's behavior during the interaction.
2) Give the child some measure of control over the conversation.
What are some tools for language sampling (Example: MLU)?
Type Token Ratio
Number of Different Words
Phonetic Information
Computer programs
The following defines what term?:
"... is conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients."
Evidence Based Practice (EBP)
Best Evidence Based Practice comes from what three components?
Clinical Experience
Client Values
Research
EBP is a "cyclic and symbiotic" relationship between ________ and ________.
Clinical Work and Research
What are the six steps towards becoming an evidence-based practitioner?
1) Convert a clinical need into an answerable question
2) Document the internal evidence
3) Search for and find the best external evidence to answer the question
4) Critically evaluate the evidence you find for its validity, strength, and usefulness
5) Use your clinical experience combined with your research findings to apply to practice
6) Evaluate and audit your performance (question everything)
Step 1 on becoming an evidence based practitioner is...
Develop an appropriate clinical question
What is PICO and what step is it part of for becoming an evidence-based practitioner?
Step 1.
P: The specific PATIENT being considered should be described briefly
I: The INTERVENTION being considered must be identified
C: A COMPARISON treatment (such as existing tx or no tx) should be specified, if relevant.
O: The desired OUTCOME should be clearly specified
Here is an example of a good PICO question:
Would a 5 year, 4 month old kindergartener with primary expressive language impairment affecting grammar and speech production (P) make more significant gains in grammatical and phonological skill in conversational contexts (O) with an intervention that targets phonology (I) or grammar or both (C)?
In the table for Evaluating External Evidence, which pieces of evidence mostly apply to SLP's?
IIa
IIb
III
IV
What is the highest block of evidence according to the Evaluating External Evidence table?
a)Strong randomized controlled study
b)Committee report
c) systematic review of quasi-experiments
d) Nonexperimental
e) Meta-Analysis or systematic reviews
f) strong quasi-experimental or multiple baseline
E) Meta-Analysis or systematic reviews
What are a couple of barriers to EBP?
Not enough work in the area of study, rely on clinical experience and good data and record keeping, limited training in reading and interpreting a research article.
EBP is a ______ of _____.
State of Mind
What is the best practice type for all clients (especially young children)?
Family Centered Practice
Why is it called family centered practice?
Because it respects the family's wishes on their extent to be involved.
T or F: Even our best clinical judgment might have to takea backseat to the parents desires for their child.
True
What type of practice is also referred to as "Discrete Trial Intervention"?
Clinican-Directed
What are some advantages of Clinician Directed practice?
Maximizing opportunities for a child to produce a new form, effective in eliciting wide variety of new language forms.
What are some disadvantages of Clinican Directed Practice?
Unnatural, generalizability of skills.
Drill, Drill play, Modeling are popular approaches to which type of practice?
Clinican Directed.
Describe the Child-Centered Approach
Natural, seen by child as "play", no tangible reinforcements
What are 4 other names for the Child-Centered Approach?
1) Indirect Language Stimulation
2) Facilitative play
3) Pragmaticism
4) Developmental or Development/Pragmatic Approach
What are some Child-Centered techniques?
Self-talk and parallel talk
Imitations
Expansions
Extensions
Buildups and Breakdowns
What are the three components to the Hybrid approach of practice?
1) Focus on general communication
2) Clinician matinaints control
3) Uses a linguistic stimuli not just responding to the child's communication
Focused Stimulation, Vertical Structuring, Milieu Teaching, and script therapy are all versions of what practice approach?
Hybrid Approach
Besides SLPs, who might be some other options for agents of intervention?
Parents
Paraprofessionals
Peers
Clinical Model, Language-based classroom, collaborative model and consultant model are all different models under what?
Service Delivery Model
Where does the clinical model (subset of service delivery model) take place?
Schools, clinics, and private-practice
If you have a child with short attention span and emotional issues, what might be a good service delivery model for the client?
Clincal Model
Described language-based classrooms (subset of service delivery model).
Specially dsigned for INTENSIVE language stimulation. Gives the children more time for intervention. Team usually helps to provide the intervention.
Forgetfulness, in sight but out of reach, sabotage, delay, and piece by piece are stragegies SLPs might use for which service delivery model?
Language-Based Classrooms
The Collaboration Model involves intensive planning, coordination and cooperation. In this model, the SLP is treated as a ______ ________.
Guest Teacher
With the consultant model, the the SLP has three roles. What are they?
1) Supply specific suggestions for activities that parents and teachers can use to engage the child.
2) complete ongoing assessment and evaluation of the child's progress
3) Help teachers and parents understand and control challenging behavior.
What are the four levels to goals?
1) Basic Goals
2) Intermediate Goals
3) Specific Goals
4) Subgoals
Which level of goal is this?:
Most general type, identifies areas of need that will be the center to therapy.
Basic Goals
Which level of goal is this?:
Provides greater specification of areas of need within one or more basic goals, numerous levels within goal, still somewhat broad.
Intermediate Goals
Which level of goal is this?:
Target specific exemplars of language form, content, and/or use that were defined at the intermediate level.
Specific Goals
Which level of goal is this?:
Carefully contructed set of measurable steps by which specific goals are achieved.
SubGoals
Vertical, Horizontal, and Cyclical strategies are for managing what?
Goals.
Prelinguistic Milieu Training (PMT) is what?
Direct training by clinician.
Responsitivity Education (RE) is what?
Training caregivers and teachers.
A child is more likely to communicated in an environment in which they:
Need, want, find novel, and interesting. Just out of reach, but visible, face to face with child.
8-10 training sessions over 6 months, modeling/training, trust, critique, questions, on going training process: This is describing what concept?
Responsivity Education
For the Hanen Program, the SLP must be _______ trained.
Formally
Goals for treatment in the Hanen Program include:
1) facilitate positive reciprocal interactions
2) encourage parents to use responsive language input that is matched to the child's level of communication.
RG: "Restricted patterns of behavior, interest, and activities" is one diagnosis criteria for what disorder?
Autism Spectrum Disorder
RE: Symptoms of the following syndrome include: "mild to moderate MR, hypotonia, a characteristic face with shortening of the front-to-back dimension, hyperflexibility of joints, heart and respiratory problems, ear anomalies, oral-motor difficulties, and deficits in speech, lang. and hearing..."
Downs Syndrome
RG: Children with _________ have small hands, short stature, and truncal obesity.
Prader-Willi syndrome
RG: Closed-head injuries are defined as....
Diffuse damage
RG: T or F: Based on findings from Bourdeau 2005, the use of the "Early Literacy Parent Questionaire" seems appropriate for determining a young language impaired child's early literacy ability.
True
RG: T or F: The Yopp Singer Phoneme Segmentation Task is suggested for use when determining subsequent reading ability.
True
RG: The sentence, "No, I'll tell him to go slow!" has ___ morphemes.
7
RG: How many utterances are in the following: "Mommy! Where is my dolly and her blanket no bottle?"
2
RG: What are three computerized language analysis speech programs?
1) SALT
2) Parrot Easy Language Sample Analysis
3) Lingquest
RG: It is suggested that you collect ___ to ___ utterances for a good language sample.
50 to 100
RG: An IFSP is different from an IEP because...
It is family focused.
RG: T or F: EBP is a state of mind.
True
RG: T or F: The book states that the IT Takes Two to Talk program must provide parents at least 2 hours of group training.
False.
RG: EMT is appropriate for children with an MLU between ___ - ___?
1.0-3.5
RG: It Takes Two to Talk is led by SLPs who have completed a Hanen Certification Workshop.
True