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44 Cards in this Set

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What is an IFSP?
Individualized Family Service Plan

For children aged birth to 3

Includes services needed to maximize development of the child and optimize the family's capacity to address the child's special needs.

May include some services for the family.
How is the IFSP different from the IEP?
Instead of focusing on the child alone, the IFSP focuses on the child within the context of the family.

An IEP is focused exclusively on educational planning while the IFSP includes info about the family's resources, priorities and concerns for the child's development.
What are the elements that are required by law to be included within an IFSP?
1. Info about the child's present physical, cognitive, social, emotional, communicative and adaptive levels

2. Statement about family's resources, priorities and concerns

3. Statement of the major outcomes expected to be achieved by child and family

4. Statement of specific early intervention services necessary including: frequency, intensity, method, environments

5. List of other services (medical, funding sources)

6. Dates for initiation and duration of services

7. Name and discipline of service coordinator responsible for implementation of IFSP

8. Plan for transition to preschool services
When are plans be implemented for babies who are identified at birth as high risk?
Could be made very soon after the baby leaves the hospital.

Or they could wait and watch the child's development before instituting a plan.
Primary and secondary prevention are the predominant goals when working with what population?
High-risk infants
Which division of IDEA mandates the use of an IFSP for children aged birth to 3?
Part C (used to be Part H)
Why is a language pathologist needed on a team that plans services for the at-risk infant?
Because language disorders are the most common developmental problem that presents in the preschool period.

Intervention is preventative.
What percentage of newborns are considered high risk?
Prenatal risk factors
maternal consumption of excessive alcohol

Exposure to environmental toxins such as lead, mercury, other heavy metals

In utero infections such as ruhella, CMV and toxoplasmosis
Prematurity (definition)
Birth prior to 37 weeks gestation with low birth weight (<5.5 lbs)
What are the major risk factors for communication disorders in infants?
Prenatal Factors


Genetic and Congenital Disorders

Other risks identified after the newborn period (hearing impairment, autism, etc.)
ASD represent a spectrum of difficulties in __________.
Socialization, communication and behavior
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule

Structured observational format
Autism Diagnostic Interview

Parent interview
Childhood Autism Rating Scale

Diagnostic tool containing 15 items
What are some neurophysiological correlates that have been observed in children with ASD?
Abnormal cellular organization in the limbic system

Elevated serotonin levels

Larger than normal head circumference and brain size
The majority of children with ASD also have ___________.
Mental Retardation
What are "splinter skills"?
Unusually high levels of ability in one or two areas
Eye contact in people with ASD
They do not differ from their peers in terms of frequency of duration of gaze but are less likely to combine eye contact with a smile and don't use gaze to regulate joint attention.
"Social cognition"
Understanding how other people think and feel, as opposed to what they look like and do.
ASD is a disorder primarily of __________ rather than of __________.

Speech development in children with ASD.
Skills in language form are at or close to those of mental-age mates, although some show deficits similar to those with SLI.

Vocabulary skills usually on par with developmental level.

Meaning and pragmatic aspects are disproportionately impaired.
Nonreciprocal speech
Speech not directed or responsive to others - often used by children with ASD.
Can be immediate or delayed

Children with ASD often use it for communication purposes.

Also used by children with other syndromes (Fragile X, blindness)
Paralinguistic aspects of communication in verbal children with ASD.
monotonous intonation

stress, vocal quality, rate rhythm and loudness deviances
What are the two primary factors for prognosis of children with ASD?
Performance on IQ tests

Language ability
Why is it important for an SLP to be a part of the multidisciplinary assessment for a child with ASD?
Impaired communication is always a part of the syndrome. Info on communication skill will play a large role in the diagnostic process.
Discrete Trial Instruction

Has been shown to be a successful type of intervention for children with ASD.

Limited in its generalization
Developmental or pragmatic approaches used with ASD
Use normal communicative development as guidelines for intervention goals

Provide opportunities for the child to engage in social activities

Exploit learning opportunities incidentally

Facilitate interactions
What skill needs to be determined first with nonverbal children with ASD?
Whether any intentional communication is taking place

If so, by what purpose and by what means
What two things do we need to do when some requests and protests are expressed but joint attention and social interactional intentions are not?
1. Provide some conventional means for expressing intents that the child is already producing (picture board, signs, AAC)

2. Provide extensive support for eliciting joint attentional and social interactive behaviors
What are some techniques for teaching social skills?
Visual cues

Video modeling

Social stories
Borderlands of the Autism Spectrum
Asperger syndrome

Nonverbal learning disability

Pragmatic language impairment
Asperger Syndrome
Deficits in social and pragmatic skills in the presence of normal cognitive and language development
Nonverbal Learning Disability
Normal verbal IQs but nonverbal IQs that are significantly lower.

Problems with nonverbal problem solving, visual-spatial skills, tactile perception, psychomotor coordination, pragmatic use of language
Pragmatic Language Impairment
Primary deficits in semantic and pragmatic aspects of communication
What is the definition of emerging language?
Developmental level of 18-36 months

Child begins producing single words and then moves on to two-word and multi-word utterances.
What is symbolic play?
Using toys in a way that symbolizes objects in real life or real life scenarios. For example, pretend to cook something in a toy oven, take it out, put it on a plate and use a fork to pretend to eat it.
Why do we assess play?
It provides a fuller picture of what equipment the child is bringing to the task of learning to talk.

It helps to decide what activities, materials and contexts will be appropriate to encourage this learning.
How is symbolic play assessed?
With the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales-Developmental Profile, the Play Scale, observation with guidelines for play assessment.
What are considerations for developing a first lexicon?
Start with words common to first words used by typically developing children

Teach words that can be used to talk about the relations among objects (pronouns, function words - that the, verbs - help, is, and relational words - more, all done)

Functional words

Things they are already interested in

Easily teachable

Short words with known sounds and match their consonant inventory
Communicative Intent
Usually a prelinguistic skill

-Must be directed (primarily by eye gaze) to the adult
-Must have obvious intended effect on influencing adult's behavior, focus of attention or state of knowledge
-Child must persist if adult fails to respond or responds in a way that the child did not intend
Why is it important to assess communicative intention?
Children with little speech who attempt to communicate with those around them by other means potentially have a stronger foundation to support the growth of functional language.
What is the purpose of assessing semantic-syntactic development?
When the lexicon reaches 50 words, word combos should begin to appear. If they haven't, syntactic intervention is appropriate.