Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Epidermis is made up of what kind of cells?
keratinized stratified squamous epithelium consisting of 4 to 5 layers.
Name 5 layers of the epidermis
Stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosa,stratum spinosa & stratum basale
Describe stratum corneum?
Stratum corneum is in the outer most layer of the epidermis, is 20/30 layers thick . Keratin and thickened plasma membrane of cell protect the skin against abrasion & penetration. The glycolipid between it cells waterproof this layer. Amazing layer of dead cells. Accounts for 3/4 thickness of epidermis. (flakes dandruff dry skin)
(horny layer)
Describe stratum lucidum?
Found ONLY in thick skin (bottom of feet), thin translucent band, consist of clear flat dead keratinocytes with inddistinct boundaries
Describe Stratum Granulosum?
3-5 layers consisting of keratinocytes, the glycolipid waterproof and are a major factor in the slowing of water loss across the epidermis. In between corneum and spinosum.
Describe Stratum Spinosum?
Spiny part of the epidermis does not exist in living part.Contain weblike filament,also keratinaocytes w/melanin granules and lagerhans' cells which are most abundant
Describe Stratum Basale?
Deepest layer of epidermis connects to dermis, mostly single layer. Keratinocytes & melanocytes start there.Many mitotic nuclei
Describe the Dermis skin region?
Strong flexible connective tissue, very vascular, binds the entire body together. Contains nerve fibers, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, collagen, fibroblast, macrophages,glands and occasional mast cell and wbc
Describe Papillary?
Is areolar connective tissue. Top thin layer of the dermis, contains loosely woven collagen & elastic fibers. You sweat through papilla(fingerprints). Many house Meissner corpuscles and capillary loops.
Describe the Reticular layer?
The deep part takes up 80% of dermis is dense irregular connective tissue.Most collagen fibers run parallel to skin surface. Neck & trunk circular.Cleavage where tissue is less dense. FLEXURE LINES appear where dermal is near a joint(skin can't move easily)
Describe the hypodermis?
Superficial fascia, consist mostly of adipose tissue, stores fat and loosely anchors tissues to underlying structures mostly muscles so they can more freely.
What are the cells of the epidermis and which is the bulk?
Keratinocytes, Melanocytes, Langerhans & Merkel.Keratinocytes are the bulk.
Describe Keratinocytes?
They take up the bulk of the epidermis produces keratin- fibrous protein that give it's protective properties. Moves from basale to top, live to dead(flakes off)
Describe Melanocytes?
Spider shaped epithelial cell that synthesizes the pigment melanin, found in the deepest layer of the epidermis and moves up to protect against uv radiation
Describe Langerhans'?
Star shaped cells from bone marrow migrate to epidermis. They are macrophages that help activate our immune system.
Describe Merkel cells?
Present at epidermal-dermal junction, spiky hemisphere associated with disclike sensory nerve ending for touch.
Name the three pigments contributed to skin?
Melanin, carotene, HB- hemoglobin
Wich pigment of the skin is made in the skin?
What pigment causes the skin to tan( reddish brown, black to yellow)? What amino acid?
Melanin, tyrosine amino acid
Carotene is what color and where would it show most?
Yellowish to orange pigment. Most obvious in sole and palms where stratum corneum is thickest
Describe the color of homoglobin and why?
HB is pinkish on fair skin because it reflects crimson color of thr red blood cells through the dermal capillaries. Since there is little amounts of melanin and epidermis is nearly transparent it allows color to show through
What causes Stretch marks and what is the silery white scars called?
The extreme stretching of the dermis can tear leaving scars STRIAE
What causes a blister?
Separation of the epidermal and dermal layers by a fluid filled pocket
What is Cyanosis and what causes it?
Turning blue due to lack of oxygen, happens heart failure, respiratory distress. For darker skin look in mouth or nail beds.
What is erythema and some causes?
Reddened skin may be cause by blushing, fever, hypertension, inflammation or allergy.
What is pallor and some causes?
Pale or whitening of skin may be cause by emotional stress, could signifies anemia or low blood pressure.
What is jaundice and what may cause it?
Yellowing of the skin may signify liver disorder(yellow bile pigments accumulate in blood and deposit in tissues)
What is bronzing and what could cause?
A bronze almost metallic appearance of skin is a sign of Addison disease, hypofuncion of the adrenal cortex
What is a hematoma?
Black and blue mark, bruise caused by the escape of blood which clotted beneath the skin
What are the two major types of sweat glands two other modified sweat glands and where would you NOT find sweat glands?
Apocrine sweat gland, Eccrine sweat gland,Ceruminous gland modified apocrine gland and Mammary glands . Sweat glands would not be found on nipples and parts of the external genitalia.
What kind of sweat gland would you find on the palms, soles and forehead? What kind of control does it have?
Eccrine gland has a sympathetic control(no control) and the sweat is acidic.
Where would you find apocrine sweat glands and where does the sweat empty out?
You would find them in the axillary and anogenital areas.They are Large glands and empty into hair follicles. Odorless
What is Cerumen?
Ear wax- sticky bitter
Mammary gland excretes what?
Where AREN'T sebaceous glands found?
They are not found on the soles and palms.
Describe Sebaceous glands and their function?
They are a simple alveolar gland and are small on the bodytrunk and limbs and quite large on face, neck and upper chest. They secrete sebum(oil)into hair folicle. They are a holocrine gland (die for the cause) they engorge and burst.Softens and lubricates hair and skin
What is cradle cap and another name for it?
Cradle cap is an overactive sebaceous gland. Also called Seborrhea
What causes a whiteheads?

What is a blackhead?
A sebaceous glad duct is blocked by accumulated sebum.

An oxized amd dried whitehead is a blackhead.
What is acne?
Inflammation of the Sebaceous Gland caused by bacterial infection.