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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
skin 2 distinct layers
- epidermis --> outermost layer
- dermis
epidermal cells
produce melanin
dermis
- strong connective tissue
- contains nerve endings, sweat glands, & hair roots
- well supplied w/ blood vessels
sweat glands
secrete through the skin surface water that contains salt, ammonia, amino acids, ascorbic acid, uric acid, and urea
functions of the skin
- protection
- body temperature
- regulation
- secretion
- sensation
- synthesis of vitamin d
temperature regulation
alters the diameter of surface blood blood vessels & through sweating
to dissipate heat
the blood vessels dilate
to retain heat
blood vessels constrict and heat loss is minimized
why does sweating help cool the body?
because heat is lost as sweat evaporates from the skin
blood reservoir
skin contains an extensive blood vessel network that can store as much as 10% of the body's total blood volume.
constriction of these superficial blood vessels shunts blood to vital organs when needed.
pruritis
itching
T or F
production of sebum by sebaceous glands decreases with age
true
common skin lesions in the elderly
1. lentigines (pigmented spots on sunexposed areas)
2. senile purpura (large, purplsh bruises that resolve very slowly
3. senile angiomas (bright red papules
4. seborrheic keratoses (waxy, raised lesions
5. acrchordons (small, soft, raised lesions)
chief c/o patient with skin disorders
- discomfort
- pruritis
- color changes
- lesions
- hair loss
- abnormal hair growth
conditions that may have skin manifestations
diabetes mellitus, cancer, kidney failure, thyroid disease, liver disease, & anemia
physical examination
inspect nevi(moles) for irregularities in shape, pigmentation, and ulceration or changes in surrounding skin
physical exam
- healthy black skin has a reddish undertone
- a grayish tone may reflect cyanosis, best seen around the mouth, over the cheekbones, & earlobes
- inflammation may be better detected by areas of abnormal warmth and firmness than by color changes
how would you assess skin characteristics for dark skinned people?
to inspect for cyanosis, jaundice, and pallor --> check the oral mucuous membranes , conjunctiva, palms of the hands, & soles of feet
pallor
white or pale --> light skin
yellowish brown --> brown skin
ashen --> black skin
erythema
bright red
cyanosis
blueish
jaundice
golden or greenish yello
pallor: causes
vasoconstriction due to acute anxiety or fear, cold, some drugs, cigarette smoking.
edema
erythema: causes
increased local blood flow to inflammation, fever, or emotions
cyanosis: causes
excess deoxygenated blood in the tissue due to anemia, respiratory disorders, or cardiovascular disorders
jaundice: causes
reflects increased bilirubin in the blood due to liver disease or destruction of red blood cells
dressings
used to protect healing wounds sand to retain surface moisture to promote healing
wet dressings
used to decrease inflammation, soften crusts, and promote tissue granulation
absorptive dressings
used to promote removal of excess exudate and are esp. useful in wounds with necrotic tissue
occlusive dressings
protect wounds and maintain moisture to promote healing
phototherapy
promote shedding of the epidermis

- used in the treatment of psoriasis, vitiligo, & chronic eczema
- contraindicated with hx of herpes simplex inf., skin cancer
- after photother. pt may have pruritis and dry skin.
- assess for s/s of phototoxicity --> redness, vesicles, pain
soaks and wet wraps
are used to soothe, soften, and remove crusts, debris, and necrotic tissue
topical drugs
keratolytics(capable of dissolving keratin), antipruritis, emollients, lubricants, sunscreens, tars, antiinfectives, glucorcoticoids, antimetabolites, antihistamines, antiseborrheic agents, and vit. a derivatives