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34 Cards in this Set

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SHERRY - Jerez, Spain (Overview)
SHERRY - Jerez, Spain (Overview)

1. fortified (most are intentionally oxidized)
2. bad reputation (market was flooded with bad quality sherry)
3. British market is most important
4. complicated system
SHERRY - Jerez, Spain

Location
Climate
Soil Varietals
SHERRY - Jerez, Spain

Location:
- Sherry Country is Jerez, Spain
- southwest of Spain

Climate:
- coast is strong Atlantic
- inland is arid

Soil:
1. Albariza (Chalk)
---- where Fino Sherry grows

2. Arenas (Sand)

3. Barros (Clay)


Varietals:

1. Palomino
---- used for Fino Sherries
---- white grape

2. Pedro Ximenez (PX)
---- dessert
---- dried under sun to concentrate sugars

3. Moscatel
---- dessert
---- considered inferior
SHERRY - Jerez, Spain

Viticulture
Vinification
SHERRY - Jerez, Spain

Viticulture:
- high yield is observed


Vinification:
- pressed immediately after harvest
- acids can be adjusted
- fermented in stainless steel or sherry BUTTS
- most are fermented DRY
SHERRY - Classification (based on FLOR growth)
Sherry Classification
(Based on FLOR growth)

1. FLOR
--- becomes FINO SHERRY
--- 15.5% ABV
--- FLOR is an indigenous yeast
--- FLOR forms film on surface of wine
--- FLOR needs moist and warm environment
--- barrel is filled 2/3 full to allow space to oxidize wine

2. NON-FLOR
--- becomes OLOROSO
--- none or minimal FLOR
--- 18% ABV
What vessel is used to ferment Sherry?
Sherry BUTTS = 600 liters

Same size as PIPES (used in Port production)
Describe FLOR yeast and what it is used for?
- Flor yeast is used in FINO SHERRY production.

- an indigenous yeast

- prevents oxidization
- forms film on top
- has a life cycle (grows and dies)
- some regions have FLOR that exists all the time
Describe the SHERRY PRODUCTION process.
- Base wine is 12% to 13% ABV
- Base wine is made from Palomino or PX grapes

1. Fermentation
2. Fortification
--- with brandy or distilled spirit
3. For FINO style, yeast called FLOR allowed to grow on top to prevent oxidization (this is not done for OLOROSO)
4. Ageing
--- 2/3 full to allow FLOR to develop
--- usually american oak
--- SOLERA SYSTEM is used (also called FRACTIONAL BLENDING)
5. Bottled
--- drink immediately
--- no benefit from further ageing
--- once opened, must use immediately
What are the types of FLOR INFLUENCED Sherry?
Types of FLOR Sherry

1. FINOS
--- acquired taste
--- aged under FLOR
--- driest and lightest Sherry
--- brine, olives, green
--- drink after opening (only good for 1 week)
--- serve chilled
--- 15.6% to 17% ABV
--- sold from 6 years onward

2. MANZANILLA
--- aged entirely in Sanlucar de Barrameda (where there is year-round FLOR)
--- lighter and drier
--- faintly salty tang

3. AMONTILLADO
--- aged FINO
--- FLOR has died naturally or intentionally
--- pale golden brown
--- oxidized characteristics makes it a darker FINO
------- nutty
------- hazelnut
------- yeasty
--- minimum 10 to 12 years
--- can be 50 to 60 years
What are the types of NON-FLOR Sherry?
NON-FLOR Sherry

1. OLOROSO
--- deliberately oxidized
--- dry
--- strong alcohol
--- darker
--- richer
--- 18% to 20% ABV (kills incipient FLOR)
Describe OTHER Sherry types.
SWEET SHERRIES
1. Cream Sherries
--- sweet, low grade
--- generic term
--- commercial
--- could be OLOROSO

2. PX (Pedro Ximenez)
--- dry grapes in sun to raisinate
--- oxidized wine
--- high quality

3. Muscat


PALO CORTADO
--- rare
--- occurs in certain years only
--- indentified when FLOR dies
--- loses its FLOR after a certain stage

MALAGA
--- desert wine from Spain
Compare FINOS and AMONTILLADO Sherries?
Both are Flor influenced

FINOS
- Oxidize
- Sweeten
- Remove color
- Final product is PALE

AMONTILLADO
- Oxidize
- Sweeten
- Leave color as is
- Final product is GOLDEN
Describe the Solera System used in ageing Sherry.
Solera System

- also called "fractional blending"
- blend newer wines with older wines
- done by hand or pump
- progressive topping up of older barrels from younger barrels of the same style
- wine is continuously blended
- the oldest (lowest) layer of butts is called the SOLERA
- the whole system from the youngest/top layer to the oldest/lower layer is called the SOLERA SYSTEM
- 1st criadera is the barrel layer above the solera
- 2nd criadera is the barrel layer above the 1st criadera
- "running the scales" is a term used to move the wine from the top criadera down through all the criadera layers to the bottom called the solera
- aged in solera for 3 years
- average age depends on number of layers
MADEIRA - Madeira Portugal

Overview
MADEIRA - Madeira Portugal

Overview
- shipped all over the world
- Secret Madeira Society
- used to toast the U.S. Constitution
MADEIRA - Madeira Portugal

Location
Climate
Soil
Varietals
MADEIRA - Madeira Portugal

Location:
- Madeira, Portugal
- Volcanic islands off the coast of Morocco

Climate:
- warm throughout the year
- no extremes

Soil:
- volcanic soil

Varietals:
- cannot make Madeira with non-vitis vinifera
1. Sercial
2. Verdelho
3. Bual
4. Malvasia (Malmsey)
5. Tinta Negra Mole
MADEIRA - Madeira Portugal

Viticulture
Vinification
MADEIRA - Madeira Portugal

Viticulture:
- cannot make Madeira with non-vitis vinifera
- mountainous terrain
- lush vegetation
- after Phylloxera, planted with American species and hybrids
- these are not allowed in Madeira production

Vinification:
- use ESTUFAGEN process (cook by heating)
----- promotes oxidization
----- promotes maderization
- fortified + oxidized + maderized (cooked/sugars caramelized)
MADEIRA - Madeira Portugal

Describe the types of Madeira wine?
Types of Madeira

VS 1. Sercial
------ driest style
------ high altitude, high acid

VS 2. Verdelho
------ off-dry moderate sweetness
------ lower slopes

VS 3. BUAL
------ Med sweetness

VP 4. Malmsey
------ fully sweet and rich
------ sea level

P 5. Rainwater
------ Tinta Negra Mole is the varietal
------ fortified + oxidized + maderized + diluted
------ poorly defined wine

V - varietal
S - Sherry method
P - Port method

------
Dessert Wines - Summary
VDN - Vin Doux Naturel
(Sweet Wine Naturally)
------ it is fortified not really natural


Muscat
---- Beaunes de Venice AOC

Grenache (most impt in Rhone)
---- Banyuls AOC

If these two are oxidized slightly - RANCIO (Rancid)

MARSALA - Italy (Sicily)

Australia
- Muscat
- oxidized
- fortified
- Rutherglen, Victoria
Sparkling Wine - Overview
- wine with CO2 trapped in liquid
- amount of pressure varies (9 lbs per sq inch)
- Champagne uses "HOUSES"
- Year 2000 panic that supply would run out (this was a lie)
- Champagne
--- expanding region due to demand
--- powerful brand
--- protected by law
- original region for sparkling wine was LIMOUX
- CIVC is the body that protects sparkling wine
- Veuve Cliquot - responsible for disgorgement
- smaller bubbles means better quality
What is AUTOLYSIS
AUTOLYSIS is the breakdown of yeast cells. Flavoring of sparkling wine comes from this.
Sparkling Wine - CHAMPAGNE

Location
Climate
Soil
Varietals
Sparkling Wine - CHAMPAGNE

Location:
- Northern France
- Near Paris

Climate:
- Cold Region
- Continental
- Concerns: frost and winter freeze
- Hazards: spring frost and fungal disease

Soil:
- CHALK

Varietals:
1. Pinot Noir
2. Chardonnay
3. Pinot Meunier
Sparkling Wine - CHAMPAGNE

Viticulture
Sparkling Wine - CHAMPAGNE

Viticulture:
- frost protection
- high yields
- hand harvesting
- small growers supply major houses
What are the methods used for making Sparking Wine?
Sparkling Wine methods:

1. TRADITIONAL Method
(Formerly called Champagne Method)
--- secondary fermentation in bottle
--- most difficult and costly
--- produces finest sparkling wine
--- best flavor
--- best bubbles

2. TANK Method
--- second fermentation is induced in a pressured tank

3. TRANSFER Method

- secondary fermentation in bottle then transferred to a pressurized tank in which it is filtered

4. INJECTION Method
- CO2 is injected into liquid in a similar fashion to carbonated drinks.
What are the steps in the TRADITIONAL method of making Sparkling Wine?
TRADITIONAL Method of Sparkling Wine producton

1. HARVEST GRAPES
- must be underripe (acidity is needed)
- Pinot Noir for structure
- Pinot Meunier for fruitiness
- Chardonnay for elegance

2. FIRST FERMENTATION
- pressing is done gently
- each varietal is fermented separately
- vin clair (low alcohol 9% ABV for underripe cruses)
- mostly stainless steel

3. BLEND
- also called ASSEMBLAGE
- cellar master decides how much of each varietal to use

4. BOTTLE

5. SECONDARY FERMENTATION
- add sugar and yeast to each bottle
- "Liqueur de Tirage"
- induces fermentation in bottle

6. CROWN CAPPED
- like beer cap
- to hold CO2

7. ALLOW FOR SUR LIE AGEING
- yeast gives flavor
- Non Vintage (15 months)
- Vintage (3 years)
- Cava (9 months)
- bottle rests on its side to spread the sugar/yeast

8. RIDDLING (REMUAGE)
- turn bottles
- manual by hand or use gyropalette machines

9. DISGORGEMENT (DEGOUREMENT)
- fine particles accumulate at bottle neck
- bottle top is frozen in nitrogen to make it easier to remove the yeast plug

10. SWEETENING
- Liqueur d'Expedition dosage
- wineries secret recipe made up of sugar and wine.
- final dryness based on sugar added

11. CORK and HASP
Describe how the Cava traditional method is different from the Champagne traditional method.
The only differences between the Cava and Champagne traditional methods of making sparkling wine are:

1. Varietals
- Xarello
- Macabeo-Viura
- Parellada

2. Aging on the lees is 9 months which give less yeast taste

3. Gyropalette is used which automates the riddling process. This reduces the time from 6 months to 6 days.

4. Yeast pellets are used
- this cannot be done in Champagne
- yeast is in a sock in each bottle
- makes it easier to remove
Compare Champage and Cava sparking wines.
Champagne
1. Sur Lie ageing - 15 months
2. Riddling - Manual
3. Riddling time - takes 6 weeks
4. Flavor - More yeasty
5. Secondary Fermentation - solution is added
6. Varietals - Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier and Chardonnay

Cava
1. Sur Lie ageing - 9 months
2. Riddling - automated with Gyropalette
3. Riddling time - 6 days
4. Flavor - applish, lighter color, less developed
5. Secondary Fermentation - yeast pellets (sock with yeast sugar)
6. Varietals - Xarello, Macabeo-Viura, Parellada
Sparkling wine - Tank Method
Tank Method

1. Bulk wine
2. Charmat
3. Cuvee Close
Sparkling Wine - Italy
1. Moscato di Asti (DOCG)
--- lower in alcohol
--- less bubbles
--- frizzante (less sparkling)

2. Asti (DOCG)
--- most amount of bubbles
--- spumante (most sparkling)
What are the two types of Champagne?
Types of Champagne

1. Vintage
- label has vintage year
- not made every year but only when the wine is good enough
- the best Champagne
- Tête de Cuvée
- Dom Perignon
- declared by individual houses
- 3 years on lees

2. Non-Vintage
--- is the region's bread and butter
--- consistency (can adjust blend for consistency)
--- 15 months on lees
What are the Champagne sweetness levels?
Champagne Sweetness Levels

EXTRA BRUT/BRUT SAVAGE/BRUT ZERO (driest, no dosage added)
BRUT
EXTRA BRUT
SEC
DEMI SEC - dessert
DOUX - dessert
Sparkling Wine - Bottle, Cork, Hasp
Sparkling Wine

1. Bottle
--- must be strong
--- should be able to hold pressure
--- indentation in bottom
------ collects sediment
------ reinforces bottle

2. Cork
- ball and stem
- more dense

3. HASP
- wire cage
What are the four styles of Sparkling Wine.
1. Blanc de Blanc (Chardonnay only)

2. Blanc de Noir
--- Pinot Noir only
--- Pinot Meunier only
--- or both Pinots

3. ROSE
--- pink
--- added red wine or skin contact

4. RD
- recently disgorged
- longer aging on the lees
What are the three main areas in Champagne?
Three main areas in Champagne:

1. Montagne de Reims
- best Pinot Noir grow (for body and structure)

2. Cote des Blancs
- the best Chardonnay grow (for freshness/elegance)
- Cotes means "hillside"

3. Vallée de la Marne
- the best Pinot Meunier grow (for fruitiness, aroma)
Other Sparkling Wine regions in France.
Other sparkling wine areas in France outside of Champagne

- use traditional method
- use region's local varietal

1. Cremant d'Alsace (no Gewurztraminer used)

2. Cremant de Bourgogne

3. Cremant de Limoux

4. Cremant de Loire (no Cab Franc used)
Name other regions in the world that produce Sparkling Wine.
Italy
-- Franciacorta DOC

California
-- Carneros
-- Anderson

Spain
-- Freixenet (largest producer in the world)