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21 Cards in this Set

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acute phase proteins
secretory pro in liver that are altered in response to injury or infection; positive acute phase proteins, c-reactive protein, alpha-antitrypsin, fibronectin are increased; negative acute-phase proteins, immunoglobulin G and M, complement, transthyretin, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, albumin are decreased
adrenocorticotropic hormone
hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that acts primarily on the adrenal cortex, thus stimulating its growth and secretion of corticosteroids
bacterial translocation
morphologic changes from acute insult to the GI that allow entry of bacteria from the gut lumen into body; assoc w systemic inflammatory response that may contribute to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome
catecholamines
hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine rel by adrenal medulla in response to shock and higher glucagon/insulin ratio; stimulate hepatic glycogenolysis, fat mobilization and gluconeogenesis
cortison
glucocorticoid released by adrenal cortex
cytokines
proinflammatory pro released by macrophages that act as mediators of shock, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and sepsis; examples include tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6
ebb phase
initial response to bodily insult characterized by lower blood pressure, cardiac output, body temp, oxygen consumption; assoc w hypovolemia, hypoperfusion, and lactic acidosis
flow phase
a neuroendocrine response to physiologic stress that follows the abb phase; characterized by hypermetabolism and hypercatabolism
glasgow coma scale
system for determining the degree of neurologic insult and a patients level of consciousness by assessing responses to eye opening and motor and verbal response
glutamine
amino acid that is the preferential fuel for enterocytes in the gut mucosa, especially during stress; it enhances cell mass and the height of the mucosal villi
growth hormone
anabolic agent mediated by IGF-1; thought to accelerate growth in children and improve protein synthesis in injured patients
gut-associated lymphoid tissue
component of gut intestinal mucosal barrier that may protect against multiple organ dysfunction syndrome; contains 40% of immune effector cells in body
hemodynamic
relating to physiologic processes involving blood flow in circulation; blood pressure and cardiac output are key components in hemodynamic stability
ileus
loss of intestinal peristalsis or lack of effective coordinated peristalsis
interleukin-1
cytokine mediator induced by tumor necrosis factor and produced by endothelial cells and monocytes; induces fever by stimulating prostaglandin production
MODS
multiple organ dysfunction syndrome; from direct injury traume, disease or response to inflammation; the response usually is in an organ remote from original site of infection or injury
sepis
systematic response to the identifiable infectious agent
shock
sudden disturbance of mental equilibrium; hemodynamic and metabolic disturbance characterized by failure of circulatory system to maintain adequate perfusion of vital organs
structured lipid
fat composed of rearranged triglycerides that contain both med & long chain FA; may improve hepatic pro synthesis and reduce pro catabolism and energy expenditure
systemic inflammatory response syndrome
SIRS; sepsis that occurs without evidence of invasive bacterial or fungal infection; can result in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome
tumor necrosis factor
cytokine produced by activated cells, kupffer cells in liver, and macrophages that is stimulated by endotoxin or by bacterial, viral, and fungal infection; initiates an inflammatory response and stimulates skeletal muscle catabolism