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200 Cards in this Set

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commonly used technique to determine the age of organic matter
radiocarbon dating
Neanderthals were early members of the speices called
Homo sapiens
The family of 2-legged primates, including humans and pre-humans
hominids
Homo erectus were people who moved constantly in search of food called
nomads
The exchange of ideas when groups of people come in contact
cultural diffusion
Early river valley civilizations developed
at different times and different parts of the world
Animal were domesticated 1st
during the Neolithic revoltion
In contrast to other prehistoric caves, the Chauvet caves contained
images of predatory and dangerous species
In paleolithic societies, humans got food by
hunting and gathering
Donald Johanson's discovery of Lucy was significant because
it was the most complete skeleton of a bipedal being found up to that time
Australopithecus developed this physical trait
opposable thumbs
many historians believed tha twriting developed from record keeping of
urban priests
broze was an imprtant alloy b/c
it was easily cast and had a sharp edge
the fossil evidence preserved at Olduvai Gorge discoverd by the Leakys was
a footprint
Archeological evidence of social classes in early civilizations can be found in
the physical layout of cities
the fossil evidence preserved at Olduvai Gorge discoverd by the Leakys was
a footprint
Early sumerian creation myths were written on
clay tablets
Early farmers were able to produce more crops b/c
they built masive irrigation projects
Long distance trade was stimulated in early civilizzations by
the search for new copper and tin
an object made by humans
artifact
prehistoric caves in france
Lascaux
Catal Huyuk
Neolithic village
river valley in Iraq
Euphrates
skilled rafts worker
artisan
age
2 million BC - 12,000 BC
Paleolothic age
age
12,000 BC - 8,000
Mesolithic age
age
8,000 BC - 5,000 BC
Neolithic age
species
2.5 - 1.5 million BC
Homo habilis
species
1.5 million - 200,000 BC
Homo erectus
species
200,000 - 35,000 BC
Neanderthal
species
40,000 - 8,000 BC
Cro-Magnon
maybe the oldest work of literature and it concerns the adventures of a legendary king
The Epic of Gilgamesh
period of Egyptin history
2700 BC - 2200 BC
Old kingdom
jackel headed Egyptian god of embalming
Annubis
A large political unit in which several territories are brought together under a single rular
empire
Evidence from Indus Valley ruins sugests thet the peole had many/few enimies
few
under Hammurabi's code punishment...
varied depending on the class of the victim
The 3 most powerful gods in ancient Egypt were
Osiris, Isis, Horus
By the time of the empire, Egyptin woman had the right
to own property, divorce, and testify in court
The excavations of the ancient Shang Dynasty cities show
sharp devisions between social classes
The tomb of Tutankhamen was hidden for centuries because
the enterance had been covered over by workes bulding a later tomb
This rular declared the desire to "prevent the power from oppressing the weak and to give my land fair decisions."
Hammurabi
The major technalogical advance of the Shang dynasty
casting bronze
One of the most remarkablr achievemnts of Indus river valley civilization
plumbing and sewer system
Less is known about the Harappans b/c
we can't translate their written language
At the end of the middle kingdom, Egypt was invaded by
the Hyksos
2 of the earliest chinese dynasties were
Shang & Zhou
Ancient chinese people believed the Mandate of Heaven gave their rulars
divine authority to rule
Durng the process of embalming, egyptian priests put organs
in separte jars protected by the sons of Horus
The Rosetta stone provided the key to understanding hieroglyphics b/c
it was written in three languages including Greek
Anyang
Shang Dynasty capital
Sargon
1st empire builder
Hatshepsut ruled during __ dynasty
18th
capital of Egypt's Middle Kingdim
Thebes
buried in the step pyramid
Zoser
largest city in the Indus Valley
Mohenjo Daro
The Israelite tribes were ruled by judicial and military leaders called
judges
This king continued his father's war against the Greeks
Xerxes
how King Darius came to power
He siezed the throne with the support of a military elite
The Aramaeans influenced other cultures most when they
introduced them to their language
how King Darius came to power
He siezed the throne with the support of a military elite
the first army to use iron weapons & spoke-wheeled chariots
Hittites
The Israelite king who set up a capital in Jeruselem
David
The Greek alphabet was based on the easy-to-learn, 22-character writing system of
the Phoenicians
The Chaldan capetal where Jews were taken into exile was
Babylon
The early Hebrews migrated from mesopotamia to settle in
Canaan
By 1200 BC the phoenicians had built
a lose confederation of city-states
The Assyriana earned a reputation for
extreme cruelty
around 1650 BC the Hittites established several city-states on a central plateau in
Anatolia
In 922 BC, the hebrews divided into 2 kingdoms b/c
they resented the king's high taxes and forced labor
Zoroaster taught that people had to
choose between good and evil
The Lydians replaced the barter system by
using coins as a median of change
The capture of Nineveh marked
the end of the Assyrian Empire
Portians of the bible were written in
Aramaic
Persepolis was built by
Darius
Hebrew's neighbors in Canaan
Philistines & Phoenicians
powerful phoenician city-state
Carthage
Abraham's agreement w/ Yahweh
covenant
provincial govenors of the Persian Empire
satraps
rular who released the Hebrews from captiviy
Cyrus II
trading peoples centered in Damascus
Aramaeans
successor to Moses
Joshua
king who built the Temple of God
Solomon
Hebrew's escape from Egypt
exodus
The first European civilization developed on the island of
Creete
Not long after the Trojan Wars, sea raiders called ______ overran the mainland & conquerd the Mycenaens
Dorians
By the 700s BC Greek kings lost power to
aristocrats
Greeks fought in this military formations called
phalanx
in 1898, Sir Arther Evans dicoverd the ruins of a civilization he called
Minoan
greek tyrant who developed the first legal system
Draco
The relationship between the greeks and their gods were unique b/c
superir human cuold outwit & limit the gods
citizens of the greek city-states were
only free, greek-speaking males
the political center of a city-state
agora
the Athenian tyrants changed athenian gov. by
moving Athens closer to democracy
Sparta was located on the Peninsula of
Peloponnesus
spartan slaves were called
helots
body of water that separates Greece from Persia
Black sea
greek goddess of wisdom & art
Athena
Mycenaeans were warlike b/c
they built walled cities and produced bronze weapons
Arther Evens believed he had uncoved a lost civilization when he found
bronze weapons & evidence of walled cities
1100 - 750 BC is called the "dark ages" b/c
written language disapeared & people loat thei rskills
minoan women had higher status than others b/c
their religion had moer goddesses that gods
Built aroun 353 BC in W Asia Monpr, this Wonder honored an official of the Persian Empire
The Mausoleum of Halicarnassus
Designed by Kng Nebuchadnezar, an early description of this woner was written by Greek historian Heroditus
Hanging Guardent of Babylon
This wonder, created by the Greek artist Phidias in th 5th century BC & was 40 ft. tall
the Statue of Zeus
in 1994, a team of archeologists found evidence of this wonder in the water of Alexandria, Egypt
Pharos Lighthouse
This wonder, dedicated to the sun god Helios, collapsed in an earthquake 60 yrs after it was built
Colossus of Rhodes
the 1st battle of the persian war
Marathon
the author of Oedipus Rex, a greek tragity about a king doomed by the gods to kill his father & marry his mother
Sophocles
an alliance of city-states headed by athens
Delian league
temple built on th acropolis overlooking Athens to honor the goddess Athena
parthenon
as a result of the Peloponnesian War
faith in democracy was weakened in Greece
artist that created the 40 ft statue in the temple on the acropolis
Phidias
in the mountain pass of Thermopolae
king Leonidus led the spartans against the persians
in the earliest greek plays
the lead character struggled against fate only to be doomed
primary caude of the persin war
athens sent ships to help the ionians rebel againt the persians
How did Pericles appeal to both rich & poor in his speach
he said that weath should be used for good perposes & poverty is not shameful if people work to avoid it
the greeks defeated the persians @ marathon b/c
the persians belived infantry wouldn't attack w/out support
playwright that wrote the tragity of the Trojan War w/ sympathetic portrayals of women
Euripides
"No one, so long as he has it in him to be of service to the state, is kept in political obscurity b/c of poverty." author
Pericles
in 1806, Thomas Bruce, the Earl of Elgin
sold Parthenon frieze & sculpture to the British
in the Funeral Eration, Pericles explained & defended
Athenian democracy
greek culture reached it's hight in Athens after
the persian war ended in 479 BC
the tragic flaw of pride that lead to a hero's downfall
hubris
Athenian comander who defeated the persian fleet @ the battle of salamis
Themistocles
building on the acropolis famous for "the porch of the maidens"
Erechtheum
the artist who captured the ideal body in motion w/ his sculpture called "Discus Thrower"
Myron
Athenian authoer who was famous for comidies & social satire
Aristophanies
anciet greek storyteller who set 2 of his greatest epic poems during the Trojan war
Homer
Greek footsoldiers
hoplites
after Alexander the Great died, his general _________ sized control of Egypt
Ptolemy
one of the greatest Hellenistc engineers & inventors said that if he had a lever and a place to stand he could move the world
Archimedes
the early civilization that worshipped bulls and decorated their walls w/ colorful frescos
Minoans
Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, & Aristophanies were
Athenian playwrights
Heroditus is concidered the "father of history" b/c
based his historical accounts on interviews and reliable sources
Themistocles faced the persians in a naval battle @
Salamis
In his colected work called Politcs
Aristotle stated that power should rest w/ the middle class
After the battle of Plataea in 479 BC
Pericles lead Athens into a "Golden Age"
Ahtenian Tyrants (4)
Darco, Solon, Peisistratus, Cleisthenes
"only humans make history" by...
Thucydides
in The Republic the ideal gov. is described as one in which
the most intellegent & best educated members from the ruling class
The Illiad tells the story of the war between
the Mycenaeans & the Trojans
who was defeated by the greeks @ marathon
Darius I
who argued that the sun was bigger than the earth
Aristarchus
devised a medical code of ethics
Hippocrates
who created the sculptures in the parthenon
Phidias
who wrote the first geometry book
Euclid
father of Alexander the Great
Phillip II
Ides od March
March 15, 44 BC
most powerful legislative branch of the Roman Republic
Senate
1st Triumvirate
Caesar, Crassus & Pompey
who migrated from N Italy & gained control over Rome in 600s BC
Etruscans
Engarved in bronze, hung in the forum, formed the basis for all futere Roman law
Twelve Tables
Roman general who defeated Hanibal
Publius Scipio
persecutin of christians began w/ the rule of
Nero
Roman foot-soldiers were called
legionaries
the largest unit in the Roman military
legion
roman scholar who wrote a monumental history of Rome that glorified patriotism & the heroism of the early Romans
Livy
in 49 BC Julius Caesar began a civil war by
crossing the Rubicon
Roman Generals improved on Greek military tactics by
having smaller, more mobile troops
"So perish whoever else shall overleap my battlements." by
Romulus
after years of rule by kings, Romans declared their city a
republic
gracchi reform were intended primerily to
provide land & economic relief for Rome's poor & unimployed
the executive branch of the Roman repulic was headed by 2 patrician officials elected for 1-yr. terms
consuls
"there is a proverb, 'you have as many enemies as you have slaves.' But in truth, we make them our enimies. We abuse them as if they were beasts of burden." by
Seneca
in AD 72 @ the desert fortess of Masada
Jewish zelots fought for independence against Rome
the roman empire reache dit's gratrest size during the reign of
Trajan
Diocletian was able to slow disintegration of the Empire temporarily by
forcing people to stay at their jobs
in 31 BC Ocataviondefeated the combined forces of Anthony & Cleopatra @ the battle of
Actium
Diocletian was able to slow disintegration of the Empire temporarily by
forcing people to stay at their jobs
Why do some people believe that Christians started the great fir of Rome
Raical Christians circulated text predicting that fire woud destroy the evil city
Germanic tribes lived by
raising cattle & farming small plots of land
in AD 476
Odoacer overthrew the emperor & declared himself king
Germanic tribes lived by
raising cattle & farming small plots of land
author of the Annals
Tacitus
author of City of God
Augustine
leader of the visigoths
Aleric
rebuilt the pantheon
Hadrian
assasinated Julias Caesar
Brutus & Cassius
social classes
Varnas
duties
dharma
epic poem that tells the story of Rama & Sita
Ramayana
basic beliefs of Buddhism
4 Noble Truths
Buddhism's state of freedom from the cycle of rebirth
nirvana
differences between Buddhism & Hinduism
varnas
rituals & sacrifices
rejected brahmans
1 single founder of buddhism
many gods of Hinduism
# gods in Hindu trinity
Brahma, Vishnu, Siva
Vedas written in
Sanskrit
dyansty during India's golden age
Gupta
Asoka's laws
Rock Edicts
2 branches of Buddhism
Therevada 7 Mahayana
"In death, thy glory in heaven, in victory, thy glory in earth. Arise therfere, Arjuna with thy soul ready to fight" by
Krishna
Buddha's name
Siddhartha Guatama
moksha is
achieving unin w/ the eternal spirit
jati were based on
what you did for a living
concept of zero & infinity developed during the reign of
the Guptas
Hinduism & Buddhism both share this blief about enlightenment
most people can't achieve it in 1 lifetime
Buddha began his search for truth after
meditating under a fig tree
warrier class
kshatriyas
janism has special emphsis on
non-violence to all living things
between 800 & 400 BC hindu scholars collected religios writings called
Upanishads