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59 Cards in this Set

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Fine grain, Mafic
Fine grain, Medium
Fine grain, Felsic
Coarse grain, Mafic
Coarse grain, Medium
Coarse grain, Felsic
Obsidian (all colors)
Porous, Mafic
Porous, Medium or Felsic
What does mafic mean?
Dark colored minerals, contains iron and magnesium
What does medium mean?
Contains a mixture of silicates and iron/magnesium
What does felsic mean?
Light colored (PINK NOT WHITE), made of silicates (i.e. quartz)
Describe the rock cycle (pick a starting point)
Magma cools, turns to igneous rock. Weathering and erosion turns igneous rock into sediments. Compactation adn cementation turns sedimants into sedimentary rock. Heat and pressure turns sedimentary rock into metamorphic rock. metamorphic rock melts and turns into magma.
How can a rock not take part in the rock cycle?
It could melt and go very far underneath the surface and stay magma. It could also be somehow flung into space (past the atmosphere).
Before a rock turns into magma, it must first turn into something else. What is it and why?
It must first turn into a metamorphic rock, even for just a short time, because heat and pressure changes an old rock into a metamorphic rock, so if a rock is heated it must turn into a metamorphic rock.
What are the three kinds of rocks and how are they formed?
Igneous - Cooling of magma
Sedimentary - compactation/cementation of sediments
Metamorphic - heat nad pressure applied to old rocks
What is an igneous rock mass?
Igneous rock formations that can be identified.
What are the two types of igneous rock masses?
Extrusions and Intrusions
Name the types of extrusions
Volcanic neck - when a volcano's cone wears away and only the rock in the vent stays
Lava Flow - Formed when lava flows out of cracks in the crust and spreads
Name the types of intrusions
Sill - Formed when a sheet of magma flows between rock layers and cools (always parallel to layers around it)
Dike - Vertical rock formation formed when magma forces its way upward
Laccolith - Formed when magma flows between rock layers and pushes upward, pushing rock layers above into an arc
Batholith/stock-largest of intrusions, larger than 100 squ. ft. Stock is less than 100 squ. ft.
What are the ways to identify a sedimentary rock?
Composition and Texture (grain size)
What are the types of composition?
Chemical - formed by evaporation
Organic - formed by dead plants, animals (coal-dead plants limestone-dead sea animals)
Clastic - Formed out of other pieces of rock (clay, sand, gravel)
(In sedimentary rock)
What are the different textures a sedimentary rock can have?
Why does limestone react with acid?
Because it contains calcite
What is the difference between chemical and organic limestone?
Organic limestone will have dead sea animals and calcite holding it together. Chemical limestone will have calcite and other minerals.
What can sediments be made of?
Anything (rocks, dead plants, dead animals...)
Where does limestone form? How do you know?
Ocean bottoms, because limestone if ormed from dead sea animals that sink to the bottom of the ocean.
Clay, sand, and gravel, gravel is round and smooth
Clay, sand, and gravel, gravel is rough/sharp
Made of sand, feels like sandpaper
Clay, often black, smooth but not shiny
Has shells, is often pale, reacts with acid
Black, light, shiny (looks like obsidian but makes a mark on paper)
Invisible layers, grain size - microscopic
Invisible layers, grain size - microscopic w/ shiny flakes
Visible layers, visible minerals (i.e. garnet)
Color banding (zebra), grain size - visible quartz/amphibole
Nonfoliated, no layers, visible calcite
Nonfoliated, no layers, visible quartz
Nonfoliated, no layers, green serpentine
What do rocks tell us?
They tell us "stories" about where they came from (the environment they were created)
Where does coal form?
In a swamp, because it is hot and muggy and there are lots of dead plants.
Where does sandstone form?
In deserts, beaches, or lakes (rivers carry sand)
Where does conglomerate form?
Rivers, because rivers carry clay, sand, and gravel.
Where does breccia form?
Mountains, because the rocks tumble down from the top, and get sharp edges.
Where does limestone form?
In the ocean, because organic limestone is formed from dead sea animals (mostly seashells, they have a greater chance of sinking to the bottom) that sink.
Where do rocks made of clay form?
At the bottom of the ocean, because clay can travel long distances.
What are sedimentary features?
Features that can identify sedimentary rocks and their environment.
What are ripple marks?
Marks formed by wind or water.
If they're parallel - formed by water
If they're not - formed by wind
What are mud cracks?
They result when muddy deposits dry and shrink, form in swamps and deserts, dry lake beds.
What is one way to tell that there was once water in a certain area?
See if there are mud cracks.
If shale is the parent rock, name the three rocks it can turn into (in order).
Slate, Schist, Gneiss
If granite is the parent rock, name the three rocks it can turn into (in order).
Granite, Granite, Gneiss
If sandstone is the parent rock, name the three rocks it can turn into (in order).
Sandstone, Quartzite, Quartzite
If limestone is the parent rock, name the three rocks it can turn into (in order).
Marble, Marble, Marble
If rhyolite is the parent rock, name the three rocks it can turn into (in order).
Schist, schist, gneiss
How can you tell a metamorphic rock apart from other rocks?
Because they are denser, heavier
Why does scoria sink, while pumice floats, even though they are both porous?
Because scoria is made of iron and magnesium, and pumice is made of silicates, and silicates are less dense.
If you have a rock that has ripple marks that are parallel, and it gradually gets higher then has a steep slope, where was it formed?
In a river, because the parallel ripple marks show that it was formed in water, and the slopes show that it was formed in a river instead of a lake.