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81 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what are james watson and francis famous for
developing a model of DNA which looked like a twisted ladder
explain the difference between the 3 types of symbiotiss
mutualism- both organisms helped
commensaalism- one helped, other neither helped nor harmed
parasite- one helped, other harmed
explain the 3 ways organisms interact w/ each other
competition- organisms compete
predator and prey-organisms eat each other
symbiosis- organisms have relationships w/ each other so they can live
give examples of how environemtn influences a species development?
some increase chances of surviving
what if the difference between genotype and phenotype
genotype- inherited combo of alleles
phenotype- organisms appearance
why is it important to protect a habitat? how can it affect other species?
habitat protection protects species. habitat destruction may affect biodiversity, if habitats are destroyed, species can be lost.
how can development of alternative energy sources help conserve the earth's natural resources
alternative resources generally renewable
what does biodegradable mean? give examples
can be broken down by living organisms such as bacteria, biodegradable packaging material
how much waste from cities and towns is due to packaging
1/3
why is reusing important
to conserve resources and prevent pollution
what is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere? what percentage is it
nitrogen, 78%
what is a nephron
tiny filters found inside each kidney, remove harmful substances from the body, found in urinary system
name the 3 parts of the cardiovascular system
blood, heart, blood vessels
what is hemoglobin? what is its funciton
protein found in RBCs, gives them red color and allows RBCs to carry oxygen throughout the body
what are antibodes? where are they made? what is their function?
proteins in WBCs, produces by WBCs, keep pathogens out
explain the rock cycle
continual process in which new rock is formed from old rock material, each type can be changed into all of them, sequence of events depends on processes the material goes through
what is a mineral
naturally formed solid that has a 3D structure
what do we call layers of sedimentary rock
strata
fossils are found in which type of rock
sedimentary rock
can you name the characteristics of the 3 types of silicate minerals shown in figure 2?
feldspar- main component of most rocks
quarts- basic building blocks of many rocks
mica; mineral that separates into sheets when broken
name some methods of identifying minerals. which are most/least reliable?
color, luster, streak, hardness, density, cleavage, fracture
least- color
most- density
what is the difference between uniformitarianism and catastrophism?
uniformitarianism- same geologic processes have been at work
catastrophism- change happens suddenly
using the clock on figure 20 to represent the geologic time scale, how long have humans been on the earth?
seconds
how old is the earth accoriding to modern geologists
4.6 billion years
what types of mediums are fossils found in
amber, tar- sedimentary rock, petrified fossil found on mountain tops (marine fossils)
layers of earth and their characteristics
lithosphere- tectonic plates
asthenosphere- allows tectonic plates to move
mesosphere- middle
outer core- liquid
inner- solid sphere
how do scientists use seismic waves
used to detect physical layers and how they change
what happens when different types of tectonic plate boundaries collide
convergent- mountains
subduction- oceanic mountains
what is pangea
single continent that all of earth's land was long ago
tectonic plates
large pieces of lithosphere that move on top of the asthenosphere
3 types of plate boudnaries
convergent- collide
divergent- separate
transform- slide past each other
how does soil erosion and desertification affect the growing of food
lessens the amount of land we can actually grow crops on
why is it important that many countries work together ot keep oceans clean
all oceans are connected and b/c it is a world problem requiring efforts from everyone
how does nonpoint-source pollution reach bodies of water
runoff
list at least 6 types of natural air pollution
dust, sea salt, volcanic, gases, ash, smoke from forest fires, pollen
where do most air pollutants come from
primary sources, natural sources
can you identify the specific name and describe the high, middle, and low cloud types
cirro- high
alto-middle
strato-low
in which direction do fluids always exert pressure
evenly in all directions
how does the density of helium make a balloon float in air
helium is less dense than air, so it can float. a volume of helium displaces an equal volume of air, so it floats
what is a fluid, give examples
anything that can flow and takes the shape of its container ex. water, oil, carbon, oxygen
bernoullis principle
fluid pressure decreases as fluid speed increases
how does air pressure relate to altitude
the deeper you are, the higher the air pressure
how does density of air compare to the density of most objects? density of oil & water?
most objects are more dense than air, oil is less dense than water, so it should float in water
explain ptolemys theory?
earth is center of universe and sun and other planets revolve around it
what is galileo famous for
being the first to use a telescope to observe objects in space
how old is the universe according to the big bang theory
12-15 billion years
describe the 3 types of galaxies
spiral- bulge in center, spiral arms
elliptical- bright centers, mostly old stars, little gas
irregular- dont fit in any group, irregular shape
day, week, month, year
day- earth rotates once on axis
week-7 days
month- moon revolves once around earth
yr- earth revolves once around sun
what did kepler believe about the universe
all planets revolve around sun in an ellipse, and sun isn't exact center of their orbital paths
what did newton believe about the universe
gravity keeps all these objects in orbit
big bang theory
universe began w/ a tremendous explosion, gathered together under pressure then rapidly expanded
nebula
giant clouds of gas and dust
what determines which stars you see in the night sky
latitude, time of yr, and time of night
circumpolar star
stars that can be seen at all times of the year and all times of the night because of earth's location
vernal equinox
the point at which the sun appears on the 1st day of spring
horizon, zenith, altitude
horizon- line where sky and earth appear to meet
zenith- imaginary point in sky directly above observer on earth
can you use the table on page 633 to describe different classes of stars
blue- hottest
red- coolest
absolute magnitude and apparent magnitude
apparent magnitude- how bright a star looks
absolute- actual brightness
why is the HR diagram useful
studying nature of stars and shows how stars are classified by temperature and brightness and how they change over time
what is forensic science
application of science to law in events subject to criminal or civil litigation, usually involves chemistry, psychology, biology, physics, enginnering, medicine, etc
describe layers of hair shaft
medulla- middle
cuticle- outermost layer
cortex- contains pigment-storing cells
which types of foods contain monosaccharides? polysaccharides? proteins?
mono- honey, fruit,some soft drinks
poly- starches
proteins- meats, animal products
enzyme
protein known as a catalyst b/c it speeds up chemical reaction by lowering amount of activation energy needed for reaction
what does a kastle-meyer test detect
heme, found in iron
parts of a microscope
eyepiece, stage, objective lens, illuminator
how do you focus a microscope properly
start w/ the lowest power objectives lenses
what do you need in order to develop a hypothesis
have asked a question and made observations and experiments
what do you do with a conclusion
helps quide what you do next, communicate results
what are the steps of the scientific method in order
question, hypothesis, experiment, results, conclusion, communicate results
what does it mean if your hypothesis doesnt match your results
ask new questions, check calculations, change procedure, use info to lead to other discoveries
what must be included in a controlled experiment
control group, experimental group, testable variable
what is density? give an example of 2 mediums w/ different volume
amount of matter in a given volume, most objects more dense than air (helium's not)
oil less dense than water so oil floats on top of water
what is the difference between sensory neurons and motor neurons
sensory- gather info about the body
motor- send impulses to other systems
what is the largest organ in the nervous system
BRAINNNNNN!!!!!!!
role of circulatory system
carry materials to and from cells
role of respiratory
breathing
urinary system????????
removes waste products from your blood
digestive system???????
digests food
how about the NERVOUS SYSTEM?????///!!!!!!
interprets information and responds to it
EnDoCrInE sYsTeM!!!???!?!???
controls body processes
what are hormones? what body system do they belong to?
endocrine glands in endocrine system, flow through body and act as chemical messengers