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77 Cards in this Set

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sod
a thick mass of grass roots and soil
litter
the loose layer of dead plant leaves and stems on the surface of the soil
humus
dark-colored organic material ina soil
loam
rich, fertile soil that is made up of about equal parts of clay, sand, and silt
bedrock
the solid layer of rock beneath the soil
ice wedging
process that splits rocks when water seeps into cracks, then freezes and expands
permeable
characteristic of a material that is full of tiny, connected air spaces that water can seep through
contour line
a line on a topographic map that connects points of equa; e;evation
contour interval
the difference in elevation from one contour line to the next
GPS ( Global Positioning System)
a method of finding latitude and longitude using satellites
erosion
the process by which water, ice, wind, or gravity moves weathered rock and soil
abrasion
the grinding away of rock by other rock particles carried in water, ice, or wind
topography
the shape of the land determined by elevation, releif, and landforms
relief
the difference in elevation between the highest and lowest parts of an area
sediment
Earth materials deposited by erosion
fossil
the preserved remains or traces of living things
fault
a break or crack in Earth's surface
deposition
process in which sediment is laid down in new locations
controlled experiment
an experiment in which all factors except one are kept consistant
aa
slow moving type of lava that hardens to form rough chunks ; cooler than pahoehoe
atoll
the ring coral island foundn far from land
basalt
a dark, dense, igneous rock with a fine texture, found in oceanic crust
base-isolated building
a building mounted on bearings designed to absorb the energy of an earthquake
batholith
a mass of rock formed when a large body of magma cooled inside the crust
caldera
the large hole at the top of a volcanoe formed when the roof of a volcanoes magma chamber collapses
cementation
the process by which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment together into one mass
compaction
the process by which sediments are pressed together, under their own weight
compression
stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks
continental drift
the hypothesis that the continents slowly move across Earth's surface
convection current
the movement of a fluid, caused by differences in in temperature, that transfers heat from one part of a fluid to another
crater
a bowl- shaped area that forms around a volcanoe's central opening
crust
the layer of rock that forms Earth's outer surface
crystal
a solid in which atoms are arranged in a pattern that repeats again and again
deep ocean- trench
a deep
deep ocean- trench
a deep valley along the ocean floor through which oceanic crust slowly sinks towardss the mantle
density
the amount of mass in a given space; mass per unit volume
dormant
said of a volcanoe that does not show sins of erupting in the near future
earthquake
the shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth['s surface
epicenter
the point on Earth's surface directlyabove an earthquakes surface
focus
the point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake
fold
a bend in rock that forms where part of Earth's crust is compressed
foliated
term used to describe metamorphic rocks whose grains are arranged in parallel layers or bands
fossil
a trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in rock
geology
the study of planet Earth
geyser
a fountain of water and steam that builds up pressure underground and erupts at regular intervals
grain
a particle or mineral or other rock that gives a rock its texture
granite
a usually light- colored rock that is found in continental crust
hot spot
an area where magma from deep within the mantle from deep within the mantle melts through the crust above it
inorganic
not formed from living things or the remains of living things
liquefaction
the process by which an earthquakes violent movement suddenly turns loose soil into liquid mud
magma chamber
the pocket beneath a volcano where magma collects
mid-ocean ridge
the undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced; a divergent plate boundary
mineral
a naturally occuring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition
ore
rock that contains a metal or economically useful mineral
organic rock
sedimentary rock that forms where remains of organisms are deposited in thick layers
pangea
the name of the single landmass that that broke apart 200million years ago and gave rise to today's continent
plate tectonics
the theory that peices of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle
pyroclastic flow
the explusion of ash, cinders, bombs, and gases during an explosive volcanic eruption
rift valley
a deep valley that forms where two plates move apart
Ring of Fire
a major belt of volcanoes that rims the Pacific ocean
seaa- floor spreading
the process by which molten material adds new oceanic crusts to the ocean floor
seismograph
a device that records ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through earth
shearing
stress that pushes a mass of rock in opposite directions
silica
a material that that is formed from the elementsoxygen and silicon; found in magma
sill
a slab of volcanic rock formed when magma squeezes between lalyers of rock
smelting
the process by which ore is melted to seperate the useful metal from other elements
sonar
a device that determines the distance of an object under water by recording echoes of sound waves
stress
a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume
strike- slip fault
a type of fault where rocks on either side movepast each other sideways with little up or down motion
subduction
the process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary
tension
stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle
texture
the look and feel of a rock's surface
tsunami
a large wave produced by an earthquake on the ocean floor
vein
a narrow slab of of a mineral that is sharply different from the surrounding rock
vent
the opening through which molten rock and gas leave a volcanoe
volcanic neck
a deposit of hardened magma in a volcanoes pipe
prime meridian
the line that makes a half circle through the atlantic ocean from the north to the south