Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

189 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is friction?
The resistive force tha opposes motion of an object past another with it is in contact or through a fluid
Ways to reduce friction
put balls on the bottom to roll
add liquid
change the texture/ material
Three types of friction from greatest to least
Sliding friction
Fluid friction
Rolling friction
What is gravity?
a force that pulls object towards the earth
What is free fall?
When the only force acting on a falling object is gravity.
What is the rate of acceletation due to gravity?
9.81 m/s squared (10 when working on problem)
What is terminal velocity?
The maximum velocity a falling object can achieve.
When objects speed up air resistance what happens to acceleration?
It decreases
During terminal velocity what is the relationship betweem air resistance and the force of gravity of the object?
They are equal
What kind of force is there during termical velocity?
Balanced force (<sum>F=0)
What is ther different between mass and weight?
Mass is the quantity of matter in an object; the measurement of inerita.

Weight is the gravitational force exerted on an object by the nearest most massive object.
What is the inverse square law?
The intensity of gravity gets less as the inverse square of the distance.

If the distance increases by 2 times, then the force of gravity is 1/4
How would you explain the universal law of gravitation?
More mass --> more gravitational pull
Less mass --> less gravitational pull
Closer together --> more gravitational pull
Farther away --> less gravitational pull

Mass and force are directly proportional
Distance and force are inversly proportional
What is projectile motion?
An object upon which the only force acting is gravity.
What are the three types of projectile?
An object dropped from rest
An object which is thrown vertically upwards
An object in which is thrown upwards at an angle
What is the one force acting upon a projectile?
How can an object be moving upwards if the ony force acting upon it is gravity?
•Newtons law suggests that forces are only required to cause an acceleration not a motion.
•And in the case of a projectile that is moving upwards there is a downward force and a downwards acceleratation; that is, the objects is slowing down.
When is there the highest velocity during projectile?
When the object is released
What happens as the object travels upwards?
Gravity slows the object to 0.
What happens to the velocity of the object as it travels downwards?
Gravity increases the velocity
When is another time when the object has the highest velocity?
When the object hits the ground.
The path of a projectile has what two tpes of components?
horizontal and vertical component.
The projectile moves forward becaue of ___.
The projectile accelerates downward because of _____.
A projectiles path is always a ______.
Parabolic curve
If three balls are shot horizontally at different speeds, which ball will hit the ground first? Why?
Each ball will hit at the same time because gravity is independent of horizontal velocity.
What is work?
Work is done on an object when a force is exerted on an object that causes the object to move some distance.
There is no work without ____.
If a person was lifting weights when would they be putting work on them? When would the not?
They would be putting work on the weights when they lift the weights. (they move) THey would not be doing work on the weights if the weights did not move.
What is the formula for work?
Work = Force • Distance
What are the units for force, distance, and work?
Force- newtons (N)
Distance- meters (m)
Work- joule (J)
How would you solve this problem: You exert .2-N to lift a pencil off the floor? How much work do you do if you lift the pencil 1.5m?
.2 • 1.5 = 3
What is power?
The rate at which work is done.
What is the formula for power?
Power = work
What is the unit on power?
Joules per second= Watts
How would you solve this problem: A figure skater lifts his partner who weight 450-N, 1m in 3-s. How much power is required?
450 • 1
---------- = 150-W
What is motion?
An object is considered in motion when its distance from another object changes.
How can an object be in motion and not be in motion at the same time?
Because of reference point
What is a reference point?
A place or object used for comparison to determine is an object is in motion.
What is speed?
The distance an object travels in a unity of time
What is the formula for speed?
Speed= ------------
What is velocity?
Speed in a given direction.
What is acceleration?
Rate at which velocity changes
What is the formula for acceleration?
final velocity- initial velocity
Acceleration= ---------------------------------------
Who did aristotle study under?
What was Aristotle?
A philosopher and a scientist
What did Aristotle say about natural and unnatural motion?
Natural- Objects natural state is rest

Unnatural- force required to cause motion

Heavier objects fall faster than lighte objects. He based his work on observation and logic.
What did Galileo say about motion?
Once and object is in motion no forve is needed to keep it in motion. Force needed to change the motion of an object. The tendency of an object to resister a cahnge in motion is inertia. All objects fall at the same rate. HE based his work on esperimentation.
Who was proved wrong, Aristotle or Galileo?
What are the three types of acceleration?
Increase velocity (positive values)
Decrease velocity (negative values)
Change direction (centripetal acceleration)
Is a car that is traveling 50km/hr, goes around a curve, and maintaining a constant speed, accelerating?
Yes because the verlocity is changing because the direction is changing.
What is inertia?
The tendency of an object to resist a change motion
Inertia depends on ab objects ______.

More mass=more inertia=harder to stop/start
Less mass = less inertia= easier to stop/start
What is Newtons first law?
An object at rest will star at rest and an object in motion will stay in motion unless acted on by an unbalanced force.
What is force?
Any push or pull that can cause an object to accelerate
What is the unit on force?
Newtons (N)
What kind of wuantity is force?
A vector quantity
What is net force?
The combintation of all forces the act on an object (<sum>F)
What is an unbalanced force?
an unequal force that changes an objects motion
What is a balanced force?
Equal forces acting on ab object in opposite directions, will not cause a change in motion (<sum>F=0)
What are the two types of balances forces?
•Static / mechanical equilibrium- objects at rest (<sum>F=0)
•Dynamic equilibrium- objects moving at a constant velocity (<sum>F=0)

moving force = resisting force
Why is it harder to get an object moving that is it to keep that object moving once it is in motion?
To get it movie the force must be greater that the resisting force meaning the net force needs to be greater than 0. To keep it moving the force needs to be = to the resisting force meaning the net force is 0.
What is Newton's second law?
Force= Mass • Acceleration
What is the relationship between mass and acceleration?
Mass and acceleration are inversely proportional. (When one goes up the other goes down- vise versa)
What is the relationship between force and acceleration?
Force and acceleration are dorectly proportional. (When one goes up the other goes up-visa versa)
What is newtons third law?
For every action there is an equal but opposite reaction.
Why don't action reaction forces cancel each other out as a balanced force?
Forces are addded to get a balanced force only if the forces are acting on the same object. Action/ reaction forces are applied to different objects.
What is a scalar?
What is a vector?
A measurement and a direction
What are the 3 ways machines make work easier?
•Change the amount of force you exert (multiply force)
•Change the distance over which you exert force (multiply distance/ speed)
•Change the direction in which you exert force
Do machines change the amount of work done?
There is a _____ when using a machine
If a machine allows you to apply a smaller force the distance will _____.
If a machine reduces the distance the force will _____.
If a machine allows you to apply a force in a different direction it doesnt change the amount of ____ or ____ you have to apply.
Force/ Distance
What is mechanical advantage?
The number of times a force is exerted on a machine is multiplied by the machine.
Formula for mechanical advantage
MA = Output force
Input force
If MA > 1 machine multiplies the ______.
output force
If MA < 1 machine multiplies the _________.
Output distance
If MA = 1 ______.
Changing direction
What is efficiency?
Efficiency compared the output work to the input work (%)
What is the formula for efficiency?
Efficiency = Output work
------------------ • 100
input work
Can the efficiency be greater thatn 100%?
Is efficiency usually < or > 100%?
< (less than)
What are the 6 simple machines?
Inclined plane
Wheel and axel
Scientific method and experimentation
1. Determine problem
2. Gether information
3. Make a hypothesis
4. Test the hypothesis
5. Gather Data and observations
6. Analyze the results
7. Draw a conclusion
Why must all experiments be controlled?
It will cause unreliable results
What does an experiment mean when it is being controlled?
All conditions are kept the same except for the two variables being tested.
What are the 4 different variables?
•Independent variables
•Dependent variables
•Limiting variable
What is an independent variable?
What is being tested? The vaiable that you minipulate or change.
What you are controlling/ cause
What is a dependent variable?
Variable affected by the independent variable.
The results/ effect
What is a control?
A standard comparison for checking and verifying resluts in an experiment
What is a limiting variable?
A variable that must be controlled in order to collect reliable information.
What are the Independent variables, dependent variables, control, and limiting variables in this example?: What music (classical/ pop/ rock/ R&B/ rap) helps students concentrate better while studying?
Independent; type of music

Dependent: student concentration,

Control: Test with no music

Limiting: the test, volums of music, time, music preference, location of experiement, temperature, etc.
What is an observation?
Using your senses to gether accurate and detailed information about something
What can be used to gether more accurate data?
Instruments: microscope balance etc.
What are the two different types of observations?
Quantitative and qualitative
What is a quantitative observation?
Numerical amount, observation that includes some sort of measurement.
What is a qualitative observation?
An in depth description characteristic of what is being observed
What is an inference?
Conclusions based on your observations and prior knowledge
What is the mean?
A measure of the average of a number of quantities (average)
What is the median?
The middle number of an ordered group of numers.
What is the mode?
Element that appears most frequently in a group of numbers
What is the range?
A numerical difference between the highedt and lowest data point.
What are the 4 types of graphs?
•Line graph
•Bar/column graph
•Pie/ doughnut graph
•Area graph
•Scatter graph
What does a line graph show?
Progressions, trends, relationships (time column)
What does a bar/column graph show?
comparisons and trends
What does a pie/doughnut graph show?
What does an area graph show?
What does a scatter graph show?
Variable date (best fit line) components of a graph
What must all graphs have?
What is the measurement for mass?
what instrument do you use to measure mass?
Triple beam balance
What is the unit of measurement you use to measure volume?
What instrument do you use to measure volume?
Graduated cylinder
How do you find the measure of regular shaped object?
Length X width X height
How do you find the volume of irregular shaped objects?
Use the smallest graduated cylinder possible. (you must know the increments of the cylinder)
How many cm does 1 mL equal?
1 mL=1cm
What is the unit on density?
Unit depends on mass and volume.
How do you find density?
Mass/ volume

What is the metric system based on?
Powers of ten
10 (9)
10 (6)
10 (3)
10 (2)
10 (1)
10 (-1)
10 (-2)
10 (-3)
10 (-6)
10 (-9)
10 (-12)
Symbol for Giga, Mega, Kilo, Hecto, Deka
Giga- G
Kilo- k
Hecto- h
Deka- da
Symbol for deci, centi, milli, micro, nano, pico
deci- d
centi- c
milli- m
micro-µ (alt-m)
nano- n
pico- p
What is the basic unit of measuremtnt for length?
What is the symbol and measurement for pico?
measurement: 10 (-12)
symbol: p
What is the measurement and symbol for Tera?
Measurement: 10 (12)
symbol: T
What is the measurement and symbol for femto?
Measurement :10 (-15)
symbol: f
What is rhe difference between a beaker and a graduated cylinder?
Beaker HOLDS liquid
Graduated cylinder MEASURES liquid
The + and - for acceleration mean...
+ I -
velocity increases I velocity decreases
Increases speed I decreases speed IF
IF object is going I object is going in +
in + direction I direction
What is chemistry?
The scientific study of structures, properties, and reactions of the chemical elements and teh compounds they form. (the study of matter and the transforms it undergoes)
What is matter?
Anything that occupies space
What is an atom?
Basic building block of matter
Who first proposed atoms and when?
Democritus in 500B.C.
What are subatomic particles?
Protons neutrons and electrons
What is contained in the atomic nucleus?
Nucleons (protons and neutrons)
What are protons?
Positively charges particles in the atomic nucleus (p+)
What are neutrons?
electrically neutral part in an atomic nucleus (n(0))
What are electrons?
Negatively charges particles in an atom (e-)
Who discovered the "plum pudding" (electron suspended in positively charged field)?
J.J. Thompson
Who discovered that positively charge and most of mass contained in nucleus electrons orbit around the nucleus?
Rutherford (1911)
Who discovered that electrons orbit the nucleus in successive orbital shells based on energy levels, "quantized" shells?
Bohr (1913)
Who discovered the "electron clouds" similar to shells, and the electrons travel in waves?
Schrodinger (1926)
What are elements?
a fundemental material consisting of only one type of atom.
Who organized the periodic table?
Dimitri Medeleev (1869)
How many groups and periods are in the Periodic table?
7 periods- all elecemts in same period have same # of atomic shells?

18- groups- properties in the same group are all similar
What does the atomic symbol tell you?
Designated elemtent
What does the atomic number tell you?
# of protons in the nucleus

# of protons = # of electrons
What deos the mass #/atomic weight tell you?
Total # of protons and nuetrons (# of nucleons)
What deos the mass #/atomic weight tell you?
Total # of protons and nuetrons (# of nucleons)
What are isotopes?
Atoms who nuclei have the same # of protons but different # of nuetrons
What are the subshells and how many electrons can they hold?
what is valance e-?
Number of electrons in the outer most shell.
What are characteristice of metals?
luster, opaque, high desity and good conductors of electricity and heat
what are characteristice of nonmetals?
Poor conductors of heat and electricity, can be transparents and are not ductile or malleable
What are metalloids?
Have charcteristics of metals and non-metals, also called semi conductors
In the periods does the size increase or decrease from left to right?
Decrease (same period same # of atomic shells)
IN a group does the size increase or decrease from top to bottom?
increase (some group = same valence)
What are charactedistics of alkali metals?
1 e- in outter most shell, used for soaps, very reactive, may even explode in water
What are characteristice of alkaline- earth metals?
2 e- in outtermose shell, fire-resistant
What are characteristics of transition metals?
less reactive with water thatn alkaline metals, used for sturcture use in technology
What are characteristics of Chalcogens?
6 e- in outtermost shell, form ores
What are characteristics of halogens?
7 e- in outter shell, for salts, oftern react with metal
What are characteristice of noble (inert) gasses?
8 e- in outter shell, non-reactive gasses
What are the types of chemical reactions?
Single Displacement
Double Displacement
Two or more compounds formed to make a more complicated one.

The opposite of synthesis- a complex molecule breaks down to make more simpler ones.

Single Displacement
One element trades places with another element in a compound.

Double Displacement
Anions and cations of two different molecules switch places, forming two entirely different compunds.

IN a chemical equation what does -----> mean?
yields or produces
What are products?
Newly formed substances (right of arrow)
What are reactants?
Chemicals that react together (on the left side of the arrow)
What are compounds?
2 or more dofferent elementts combines chemicalls. (usually with different propwerites than the elemts indavidually)
What is the law of conservation of mass?
Mass cannot be destroyed or created during any chemical change. The mass you start with is always the same as the mass you end with.
What is chemical change/ chemical reaction?
When the atons of a substance are rearrangsd. (required new substance to have a chemical composition are different from original one)
What is a physical change?
A change in which the shape, size, or physical state is changed but chemical composition is the same
What are physical properties?
Color, odor, density, hardness, sturcture, solubility, melting point, boiling point etc.
What are chemical properties?
Combos od acids and bases, reactions with oxygen and other active gasses (it is determined by the reaction or substances)
What are molecules?
Two or more atoms joined by chemical bonds