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111 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How do we determine motion?
the difference in position.
Net Force
the combination of all the forces acting on an object.
If more than one force is acting on an object, when would you add them together to get the net force, and when would you subtract?
add:some direction
subtract: opposing
How do we calculate speed?
distance divided by time
How is velocity different from speed?
velocity:how fast an objects moving, it's direction
to speed up at a constant speed
Why is gravity considered a universal force?
All matter has mass. Gravity is a result of mass.
Describe the difference between static and kinetic friction.
Static:object doesn't move
Kinetic:moving surfaces
the force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are in contact
Describe the difference between weight and mass.
weight:gravitational force
mass:amount of matter
How does air resistance affect falling objects?
air resistance opposes the motion of objects through the air
What did Galileo hypothesize would happen with falling objects if there were no air?
float away
Terminal Velocity
the constant velocity of falling object when the force of air resistance is equal
Projectile Motion
the curved path
Explain what Newton's second law means for kids racing toy cars.
Who ever pushed harder with a lighter car would win.
List 3 examples of action-reaction pairs of forces.
1.Bat hitting ball
2.Rabbit's leg's pushing off ground
3.Student sitting at desk
Calculate momentum.
M X V=Mass x velocity
How are waves and energy related?
Waves transfer energy
a phenomen that occurs when two objects naturally vibrate at the same frequency;the sound produced by one object causes the other object to vibrate.
Speed of a wave.
Wavelength X Frequency
the maximum distance that the particle of a wave's medium vibrate from their rest position.
Example of Reflection.
Which wave property relates to the pitch of a sound wave?
A change in the direction of a wave when the wave finds and obstacle or an edge
Why are radiation waves different from other waves?
They transfer energy without going through a medium.
What is interference and how can it affect the sounds we hear?
the combination of tow or more waves that results in a single wave, can make sound louder or softer
What is the amplitude of a wave? How does it relate to the loudness of a sound wave?
the maximum distance that the particles of a medium vibrate from their rest position. larger amplitude=more energy(louder)
smallest unit of matter, consiting of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
the center of an atom or the center of a eukaryotic cell
How is a proton different from a neutron? How are they alike?
Proton: positive
Same # of each in an atom
What characteristics help us describe a wave?
crest, trough, wavelength, frequency
How do waves transfer energy?
they transfer by the vibration of particles in a substance
Compare a rarefaction with a compression.
rarefaction: particles spread apart
compression: particles close together
Mass number
protons + neutrons
Where is most of the mass of an atom found?
negatively charged particle
Atomic number
number of protons
Electron cloud
spaced electrons that circle the nucleus
How are atoms of various elements different?
the number of valence electrons
What comprises most of the volume of an atom?
How do isotopes of the same element differ from each other?
they have diffferent numbers of neutrons, so they have different masses
Atomic mass
protons + neutrons
How would u determine the # of protons an atom has, given the atomic mass.
subtract neutrons
How would u determine the # of neutrons an atom has, given the atomic mass.
subtract protons
How would u determine the # of electrons an atom has, given the atomic mass.
it's not possible
What unit of measurement is used for atoms?
Which individuals helped us develop our atomic theory?
Democritus, Aristotle, Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr, Erwin Schrodinger
How did Democritus describe atoms?
Matter is made of atoms (particles)
How does Dalton's atomic model differ from Thomson's?
Thomson:electrons located throughout atom
Dalton:electrons around atom
What did Rutherford determine about atomic structure?
nucleus: dense, tiny and positively charged
Describe Rutherford's experimental set up.
"Shooting Gallery"-aimed small positive particles at a thin sheet of foil, some bounced back, and some went through.
Something that occurs or repeats at regular intervals
How did Mendeleev set up the original periodic table?
in order of increasing atomic mass
Properties of a Metalloid.
shiny, brittle, hard, good conductor of electric current
What types of elements are found in Groups 13-15 of the periodic table?
Metalloids, metals, and nonmetals.
What are columns of the periodic table called?
What are rows of the periodic table called?
families or groups
How do the elements change as you go from left to right across a period?
Reactivity and Conductivity change gradually
What does a period's number tell us about the element's of that row?
the physical and chemical properties (Reactivity and conuductivity)
Name groups 1, 2, 17, and 18 of the periodic table.
1.Alkali Metals
2.Alkaline- Earth Metals
18.Noble gases
Which family is known for its lack of reactivity?
noble gases
Which group of metals is so reactive they are never found pure?
Alkali metals
What does the group number tell us about elements in that group?
how many valence electrons they have
What else do the members of a group have in common?
reactivity, softness, denstiy, color, shininess
Which non-metals are the most reactive?
Periodic law.
the repeating chemical and physical properties of elements that change periodically with the atomic numbers of the elements
Properties of most metals.
shiny, ductile, malleable,good conductors of electric current and thermal energy
Properties of most transition metals.
shiny, conduct thermal energy and electric current well
What does a chemical bond do?
it holds atoms or ions together
How can you predict whether 2 atoms will bond?
# of valence electrons
How are valence electrons different from other electrons?
they are found on last valence shell.
What part of an atom is responsible for forming bonds?
valence electron shell
How is a molecular compound formed?
by combining two atoms so they complete each others valence shell.
What types of elements form covalent bonds?
How do ionic bonds form?
when electrons are transferred from one atom to another
a charged particle that forms when an atom or group of atoms gains or loses one or more electrons
How is the charge of an ion calculated?
loses one or more-positive
gains one or more-negative
How do atoms develop a charge?
the number of protons and neutrons
What is released as an atom gains an electron?
How many dots go on a Lewis dot diagram for a member of group 2?
How do atoms of group 2 become more stable?
by losing 2 electrons
Crystal lattice
a repeating 3 dimensional pattern, gives ionic compounds certain properties (brittleness, high melting and boiling points)
How do covalent bonds form?
when atoms share one or more pairs of atoms
What properties do metallic bonds have?
electrical conductivity, malleability, ductility
How are metallic bonds different from covalent bonds?
metallic:form between the attraction
Where are reactant found in a chemical equation? Where are the products?
reactants:starting materials
products:result, substance formed
Law of Conservation of Mass
Mass can't be created nor destroyed
Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy can't be created nor destroyed
4 signs of a chemical reaction
gas formation, solid formation, energy change, color change
Explain what happens to chemical bonds during a reaction.
they break then form new bonds
What is activation energy?
the minimum amount of enery required to start a chemical reaction
Difference between endothermic and extothermic.
endothermic:energy taken in
exothermic:energy release
single-displacement reaction
a reaction in which on element takes the place of another element in a compound
synthesis reaction
two or more substances combine to form a new compound
decomposition reaction
compound breaks down to form two or more simpler substances
double-displacement reaction
a gas, solid,precipitate, or molecular compound forms from the exchange of ions between tow compounds
How does a catalyst speed up reactions?
it increases the rate of reaction
Preservatives in our food fall into what group of substances?
List 5 factors which would speed up a reaction.
increase temperature, concentration, surface area, add a catalyst, stir
What process comprise the water cycle?
precipitation, condensation, percolation, runoff, transpiraton, evaporation
the mostly solid, rocky part of the Earth
What process comprise the carbon cycle?
photosynthesis, respiration, combustion, decomposition
Nitrogen cycle
Nitrogen cycles among the air, soil, water, plants and animals
energy transferred as heat through a material
transfer of thermal energy by the circulation or movement of a liquid or gas
the transfer of energy as Electromagnetic waves
What process comprise the rock cycle
heat, pressure, weathering, erosion, cooling
Location of crust
the thin and solid outermost layer of the earth
a body of rock or sediment that stores groundwater and allows the folw of groundwater
the layer of rock between the crust and core
the process by which wind, water, ice or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another