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### 111 Cards in this Set

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 How do we determine motion? the difference in position. Net Force the combination of all the forces acting on an object. If more than one force is acting on an object, when would you add them together to get the net force, and when would you subtract? add:some direction subtract: opposing How do we calculate speed? distance divided by time How is velocity different from speed? velocity:how fast an objects moving, it's direction Acceleration to speed up at a constant speed Why is gravity considered a universal force? All matter has mass. Gravity is a result of mass. Describe the difference between static and kinetic friction. Static:object doesn't move Kinetic:moving surfaces Friction the force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are in contact Describe the difference between weight and mass. weight:gravitational force mass:amount of matter How does air resistance affect falling objects? air resistance opposes the motion of objects through the air What did Galileo hypothesize would happen with falling objects if there were no air? float away Terminal Velocity the constant velocity of falling object when the force of air resistance is equal Projectile Motion the curved path Explain what Newton's second law means for kids racing toy cars. Who ever pushed harder with a lighter car would win. List 3 examples of action-reaction pairs of forces. 1.Bat hitting ball 2.Rabbit's leg's pushing off ground 3.Student sitting at desk Calculate momentum. M X V=Mass x velocity How are waves and energy related? Waves transfer energy Resonance a phenomen that occurs when two objects naturally vibrate at the same frequency;the sound produced by one object causes the other object to vibrate. Speed of a wave. Wavelength X Frequency Amplitude the maximum distance that the particle of a wave's medium vibrate from their rest position. Example of Reflection. mirror Which wave property relates to the pitch of a sound wave? frequency Defraction A change in the direction of a wave when the wave finds and obstacle or an edge Why are radiation waves different from other waves? They transfer energy without going through a medium. What is interference and how can it affect the sounds we hear? the combination of tow or more waves that results in a single wave, can make sound louder or softer What is the amplitude of a wave? How does it relate to the loudness of a sound wave? the maximum distance that the particles of a medium vibrate from their rest position. larger amplitude=more energy(louder) Atom smallest unit of matter, consiting of protons, neutrons, and electrons. nucleus the center of an atom or the center of a eukaryotic cell How is a proton different from a neutron? How are they alike? Proton: positive Neutron:neutral Same # of each in an atom What characteristics help us describe a wave? crest, trough, wavelength, frequency How do waves transfer energy? they transfer by the vibration of particles in a substance Compare a rarefaction with a compression. rarefaction: particles spread apart compression: particles close together Mass number protons + neutrons Where is most of the mass of an atom found? nucleus Electron negatively charged particle Atomic number number of protons Electron cloud spaced electrons that circle the nucleus How are atoms of various elements different? the number of valence electrons What comprises most of the volume of an atom? nucleus How do isotopes of the same element differ from each other? they have diffferent numbers of neutrons, so they have different masses Atomic mass protons + neutrons How would u determine the # of protons an atom has, given the atomic mass. subtract neutrons How would u determine the # of neutrons an atom has, given the atomic mass. subtract protons How would u determine the # of electrons an atom has, given the atomic mass. it's not possible What unit of measurement is used for atoms? grams Which individuals helped us develop our atomic theory? Democritus, Aristotle, Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr, Erwin Schrodinger How did Democritus describe atoms? Matter is made of atoms (particles) How does Dalton's atomic model differ from Thomson's? Thomson:electrons located throughout atom Dalton:electrons around atom What did Rutherford determine about atomic structure? nucleus: dense, tiny and positively charged Describe Rutherford's experimental set up. "Shooting Gallery"-aimed small positive particles at a thin sheet of foil, some bounced back, and some went through. Periodic Something that occurs or repeats at regular intervals How did Mendeleev set up the original periodic table? in order of increasing atomic mass Properties of a Metalloid. shiny, brittle, hard, good conductor of electric current What types of elements are found in Groups 13-15 of the periodic table? Metalloids, metals, and nonmetals. What are columns of the periodic table called? periods What are rows of the periodic table called? families or groups How do the elements change as you go from left to right across a period? Reactivity and Conductivity change gradually What does a period's number tell us about the element's of that row? the physical and chemical properties (Reactivity and conuductivity) Name groups 1, 2, 17, and 18 of the periodic table. 1.Alkali Metals 2.Alkaline- Earth Metals 17.Halogens 18.Noble gases Which family is known for its lack of reactivity? noble gases Which group of metals is so reactive they are never found pure? Alkali metals What does the group number tell us about elements in that group? how many valence electrons they have What else do the members of a group have in common? reactivity, softness, denstiy, color, shininess Which non-metals are the most reactive? halogens Periodic law. the repeating chemical and physical properties of elements that change periodically with the atomic numbers of the elements Properties of most metals. shiny, ductile, malleable,good conductors of electric current and thermal energy Properties of most transition metals. shiny, conduct thermal energy and electric current well What does a chemical bond do? it holds atoms or ions together How can you predict whether 2 atoms will bond? # of valence electrons How are valence electrons different from other electrons? they are found on last valence shell. What part of an atom is responsible for forming bonds? valence electron shell How is a molecular compound formed? by combining two atoms so they complete each others valence shell. What types of elements form covalent bonds? nonmetals How do ionic bonds form? when electrons are transferred from one atom to another Ion a charged particle that forms when an atom or group of atoms gains or loses one or more electrons How is the charge of an ion calculated? loses one or more-positive gains one or more-negative How do atoms develop a charge? the number of protons and neutrons What is released as an atom gains an electron? energy How many dots go on a Lewis dot diagram for a member of group 2? two How do atoms of group 2 become more stable? by losing 2 electrons Crystal lattice a repeating 3 dimensional pattern, gives ionic compounds certain properties (brittleness, high melting and boiling points) How do covalent bonds form? when atoms share one or more pairs of atoms What properties do metallic bonds have? electrical conductivity, malleability, ductility How are metallic bonds different from covalent bonds? metallic:form between the attraction covalent:sharing Where are reactant found in a chemical equation? Where are the products? reactants:starting materials products:result, substance formed Law of Conservation of Mass Mass can't be created nor destroyed Law of Conservation of Energy Energy can't be created nor destroyed 4 signs of a chemical reaction gas formation, solid formation, energy change, color change Explain what happens to chemical bonds during a reaction. they break then form new bonds What is activation energy? the minimum amount of enery required to start a chemical reaction Difference between endothermic and extothermic. endothermic:energy taken in exothermic:energy release single-displacement reaction a reaction in which on element takes the place of another element in a compound synthesis reaction two or more substances combine to form a new compound decomposition reaction compound breaks down to form two or more simpler substances double-displacement reaction a gas, solid,precipitate, or molecular compound forms from the exchange of ions between tow compounds How does a catalyst speed up reactions? it increases the rate of reaction Preservatives in our food fall into what group of substances? inhibitor List 5 factors which would speed up a reaction. increase temperature, concentration, surface area, add a catalyst, stir What process comprise the water cycle? precipitation, condensation, percolation, runoff, transpiraton, evaporation Geosphere the mostly solid, rocky part of the Earth What process comprise the carbon cycle? photosynthesis, respiration, combustion, decomposition Nitrogen cycle Nitrogen cycles among the air, soil, water, plants and animals Conduction energy transferred as heat through a material Convection transfer of thermal energy by the circulation or movement of a liquid or gas radiation the transfer of energy as Electromagnetic waves What process comprise the rock cycle heat, pressure, weathering, erosion, cooling Location of crust the thin and solid outermost layer of the earth Aquifer a body of rock or sediment that stores groundwater and allows the folw of groundwater Mantle the layer of rock between the crust and core erosion the process by which wind, water, ice or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another