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54 Cards in this Set

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What is weather?
A condition of the Earth's atmosphere at any particular place and time.
Heat
The total thermal energy transferred from an object at a higher temperature to an object at a lower temperature.
conduction
The transfer of heat between objects that are in contact with one another.
Radiation
The transfer of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves.
convection
the transfer of heat within a fluid by movement of the fluid from warmer areas to cooler areas.
convection cell
The region of a fluid in which a convection current is maintained.
Evaporation
the change of a liquid into a gas
Coriolis effect
The deflection of a moving object from its original position as seen by observers on the Earth's surface.
What is violent weather caused by?
Vertical movement of warm, moist air.
What are the stages of thunderstorm?
cumulus stage and mature stage
Which stage of a thunderstorm involves a large bubble of upward moving, moist air?
cumulus stage
What happens in the mature stage of a thunderstorm?
Water condenses and provides a strong rain, falling rain pulls air downward causing the storm to develop regions of downward moving air. This causes the air temperatures to change causing the storm
When does lightening occur?
when the charges in a thundercloud become seperated. The bottom of the cloud is negatively charges and the top is positively charged. When there are enough charges the air becomes a conductor.
How many deaths in the United States are due to lightening strikes?
200 deaths per year
During what stage of a storm do Tornados develop?
During the mature stage.
What are tornadoes?
winds that rotate rapidly around an area of low air pressure.
What is the last stage of a thunderstorm?
the dissipative stage.
What direction does the air flow during the dissipative stage?
downward
What is an air mass?
a large quantity of air that has similar characteristics throughout.
What is a tropical depression?
a tropical air mass of low atmospheric pressure.
What are three conditions that are necessary for a tropical disturbance to change into a hurricane?
high humidity, light winds and warm water
What is the center of a hurricane called and what makes it interesting?
The center is called the eye and it has little to no wind.
What prevents the eye of a hurricane from collapsing?
the inertia of the winds around the center.
How much area does an average hurricane cover?
about 50,000 square kilometers.
What are blocking highs?
Air masses containing high pressure that produce strong winds blowing outward and keep a hurricane from advancing.
What is the effect that causes hurricane winds to move in a counterclockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere?
Coriolis Effect
What causes warm air to rise and start convection cells?
Warm, moist air bouyed up by colder, denser air.
What is the cooling process that causes water to change from a liquid to a gas?
Evaporation
Why does adding moisture to air make it lighter?
Water molecules are replacing air (gas) molecules, water molecules have less mass than gas molecules.
Why is the sun responsible for weather on Earth?
The energy to heat the air, comes from the sun.
Why is the Coriolis effect important to the eye of a hurricane?
The Coriolis effect spins the winds that rush toward the eye, causing them to move at an angle to their normal path. This keeps the eye of the hurricane from collapsing.
What is the process called in which molecules of a liquid absorb energy from their surroundings to become a gas?
Evaporation
The method of heat transfer that uses electromagnetic waves is what?
radiation
The transfer of energy from the surface of Earth to the air above it is done through what?
conduction and radiation
Heat is transferred through air by what?
Convection
The method of heat transfer through empty space is called what?
radiation
How much of the solar radiation reaching the Earth's atmosphere is eventually absorbed by the Earth's surface?
Half
When a mass of warm, moist air rises and eventually cools to the dew point, gaseous water condenses into what?
Liquid water
Energy transferred from an object at a higher temperature to an object at a lower temperature is called what?
Heat
Weather conditions are a result of what type of energy?
solar
What is a storms energy source?
warm, moist air
What stage is a storm when it contains only down drafts?
Dissipative stage
What stage begins with rainfall?
mature stage
What stage of a storm has warm, moist air moving rapidly upward?
Cumulus stage
What sends microwaves into the atmosphere?
radar
What detects direction and speed of precipitation?
Doppler radar
What occurs when winds rotate rapidly around a low-pressure area?
Tornado
Why must lightening precede thunder?
Lightening produces energy that heats the air, causing the air to expand, when air expands it causes thunder.
What is the Doppler principle?
It says that the frequency of sound waves moving closer is higher than those that are moving away.
When does lightening occur?
When charges in a thundercloud seperate.
What happens when a hurricane encounters a polar air mass of high pressure?
The high pressure and strong winds blow outward keeping the hurricane from moving forward.
How long does an average hurricane last?
About Nine days
Why does a hurricane die when it drifts into the North Atlantic?
The cool water does not provide enough energy to keep the storm going.
Does a hurricane or a tropical storm have lower pressure at its center?
hurricane