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142 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When formulas are expressed in part what must you first do?
add-to make total parts (ratio)
Why is age considered in determining of proper dosage in young children?
renal function develops over 1st 2 years of live
What is a nomogram
precise calculations base on both height and weight determine BSA
What is avg adult BSA
What exactly is equilibrium
rate going back/forth from products to reactants the same
What is themodynamics
study of how it uses energy and relative stability of components
What is kinetics
study of RATE at which a system undergoes change
What is energy of activation
the energy barrier going from reactants R to P (products)
What is 1st law of thermodynamics
energy of universe remains constant, can neither be created or destroyed
What does Q=E-W tell us
the addition of heat, can be used to increase internal energy of the system or do work
What is Q
What is E
internal energy
Is Q=H
What is H
Enthalpy, (heat content
What is Enropy
amount of disorder in a system
What happening to the temp of a solid/liquid at mp/bp
temp does not change, instead energy serves to increase entropy
What is S
change in entropy
What is S in isothermal
What must we consider if temp is not constant
heat capacity
What is S for temp not constatn
S=Cp lnx (T2/T1)
What does Gibb's free energy allow us to determine
whether a reaction is thermodynamically favorable
What is G at equilibrium
What is change in G at eqauilbirum, what is standard state at equilibrium
standard state of G never equal zero==equal to
-RTln (c2/c1)
What is standard state G^0 and point
used as a comparison of free energy at standard on 1 M
What is K C2/C1 be seen as in realtion with drugs
Bound/Free (not plasma bound)
What is rate of a reaction defined in terms of drugs
as the increase or decrease in drug concentration with time
What is zero-order kinetics
the rate of decomposition does NOT change with concentration
What is rate law for decreasing concentration for Zero-order reaction?
decrease in -drug conc/time =

slope (rise/run)
What is slopes relation to rate constant
What is Co
concentration at time 0
What is self life of drug definition?
amount of drug is 90% of orginal concentration
What is 1st order kinetics
the rate of decomposition of a drug changes and drug concentration decreases
What is rate law for decreasing concentration for first order reaction?
- (decrease in drug con/time=kC

more drug you have, faster it degrads
Why do we use logs for 1st order
concentratino changes logartithmically
What is relation with time in 1st order
per unit time (-1)
What is second-order kinetics
the rate of the decomposition of the drugs depends on concentration of BOTH reactants
Can you explain graph of Zero, 1st and 2nd order
Zero, drug composition dependent on time (same no matter what concentration)
1st, drug composition dependent on concentration (exponentially) must use long
2nd-concentration depends on 2 reactants
Suspenstion are what type of kinetics
Zero-order kinetics
What are suspension zero order
as durg decomposes in solutions, more durg is released from the suspened particles, so concentration remains constant
What happens when all suspended particles have converted in solution
1st order reaction
What is relationship between 1st order kinetics and Zero order
both are decrease amout of drug over time, but 1st order is dependent on concentration
1st order = Zero order
What are 2 ways to increase shelf-life
suspension and overage
What influences reaction rates
Light, ionic strength, pH, solvent, dielectric constant, and temp (lips dt)
Generally high temps causes reactions
to increase in rate
Why do reaction rates increase with temp
molecules vibrate faster, and more likely to overcome activation energy
What is Arrhenius activation
is the energy barrier that must be overcome for reaction to proceed
What happens to Ea energy at higher temps
energy of reactants raised, so Ea is LOWERED
What is advantage of using Arrhenius equation?
testing drug stability at higher temps where decomposition is faster, so you don't have to monitor self life of a drug at storage temp
What is graph of Arrhenius equation
Log of rate constant/ TEMP

Rate decreases exponentially with temp
Slope of Arrhenius =
What is energy barrier due to
formation of transition state
What is stability of transition state
extremely unstable
What order is decomposition of transition state
1st order, reaction rate of transition state and depends on KC (concentration of transistion state)
What is Change in G of transition state =
energy of activation
Effect of rate constant (k) by catalyst
rate constant increased
Effect of equilibrium K by catalyst
What stablizes parital - charges in transition state
H30 (acid) with +
What stablizies partial + charges in transition staste
-OH base
What is complexation
2 things sticking together (stong attraction towards each other=complexation
weak interaction--driven towards molecules
What is Keq, and relationship to complexation?
= complex/conc A'B
stability constant
What do values >1
and <1 mean for Keq
>1, driven towards products
<1 driven towards reactants, as there is a weak interaction between both
Type of complexation (how they stick together)
electrostatics, Lewis acid-base, dipolar interatction
H bonding
How does complexation affect drug performace by solubility
Increase solubility as many drugs are not soluble in water, a complex would increase
or decrease solubility, which would lengthen theraputic effect
Types of complexation
Metal, Inclusion complexes, and physical adsoprtion
What is difference between solubility and dissolution?
solubility how much dissolves
and dissolutino is rate at which disolves
What is a metal complex?
binding of a ligand (electron donor) to a metal
What are point of chelating agents
great care must be taken to elminate metal from reacting with drugs (preventing oxidation), so a chealting agent like EDTA will bind with a metal making unavailbe for particpating in oxidation
What is benifit of mental-pie bond complex?
treatment of metal poisoning, b/c bind large range of metal, and easily excreted
What makes outside of Cyclodextrin hydrophilic
Hydroxl OH groups
What makes interior of Cyclodextrin hydrophobic
rings and glycocidic oxygen
How does Cyclodextrin work
Cyclodextrin inclusion is a molecular phenomenon in which usually only one guest molecule interacts with the cavity of a Cyclodextrin molecule to become entrapped and form a stable association. Molecules or functional groups of molecules those are less hydrophilic than water, can be included in the Cyclodextrin cavity in the presence of water.
What type of complex is cyclodextrin
What is physcial adsorption
binding of a drug to surface of macroscopic particle
What is example of physical adsoprtion
charcoal has huge SA, adn binds variety of drugs, and is large particle cannot be adsorbed in stomach
At what pH is hydrolsis the slowest
at neutral 7
Hydrolysis in a basic solution the nucleophile is
What happens to carbonyl in acidic solution
grabs an H+ b/c pronated, making it more electrophilic
What simply is oxidation
adding Os (oxygen) (removing electrons)
What simlply reduction
adding H's and taking O's away
adding electrons
3 steps of free radical oxidation
iniation, propgation, and termination
What happens to a molecule in an excited state
chemical reactions, energy transfer to another molecule, heat dissipation, and emmission
What does an electron do in the presence of light
promoted to a higher energy orbital
How can you prevent photodecomposition
packaging, formulation,
What type of formulations (aq) are usually added to prevent photodecomposition
Sodium sulfite NaSo3, hypophoorous acid, and ascorbic acid, or coat tablet
What are 3 physical properties taht affect how solid dosage forms perform?
1. particle size, crystallinity, and water content
What happens to rate of dissolution as particles get larger
rate of dissolution decrease, larger SA
What is angle of repose
angle of pile of drug increase with drugs that stick together, and larger particle size
Which are more order Crystals or Amorphous
crystals (more stable, higher BP)
What is polymorphism
existence or two or more different distinct crystal forms in a singe solid
What solutes are prone to polymorphism
symmetrical moecules or hydrates of solvents
What are 2 types of polymorphs
What is enantiotropic
(under thermo)--activation energy is low, so samples can interconvert often
What is monotropic
(under kinetic)-high activation energy, isolated form
Why are polymorphs important
differ in physcial properties (mp, dissolution, bioavail
Polymorphs of novobiocin
amorphous well adsorbed, cystal poorly adsorped
Polymorphs of ampicillin
one is anhydrous, adn trihydrate--show differnt PK profiles
What does water content effect?
tendency to form hydrates (polymorphism), lower thermal stability, lead to direct decomposition of drug
Why are syrups have a high concentration of sugar
only enough water is added to saturate the solution-so no free water is available--which is needed for bacterial growth--so ihbitied
Would acidi berry and fruits be best for basic drugs or acidic drugs
basic drugs, b/c increase of H+, drives it to protanted form, which is more soluble in water (better syrup)
What does proximity effects have on rate of reaction
its contains (2 differnt reactants interacting (slower) 2nd order
contains one reactan attacking self (1st order)
What are colligative properties
depend only on the number of dissolved particles in solution and not on their identity.
How do you make something colligative
solutions have different properties than either the solutes or the solvent used to make the solution
Compare the properties of a 1.0 M aqueous sugar solution to a 0.5 M solution of table salt (NaCl) in water.
both solutions have precisely the same number of dissolved particles because each sodium chloride unit creates two particles upon dissolution, both have same colligative properties,
Examples of colligative properties
freezing point, boiling point, vapor pressure, and osmotic pressure
What is free energy cause
molescules to leave solution
What is equilbirum of free energy
rate of molecules leaves the solution is equal to molecules returning to solution
Where is free energy highest
pure liquids, and lower in mixtures
Why does adding a solutle lower vapor pressure
water has more things to interact with, so less leave, and more soultes will leave vapor phase, as concentration of water in solution decreased
What is vapor pressure equal to
vapor pressure of pure solvent x, its mole fraction
How can a non-volatile solute lower vaport pressure
(non-volatile)---has no vapor pressure,--vapor pressure still decreases, as dependent on # of particles in solution changes, and that is a colligative property
How is bp occur
when atmospheric presure equals vapor presure
What happens to BP when you add a solute
increase, b/c solute lower VP and so need more heat to have VP eqal atm pressure
How does fp occur
when free enegy of liquid= free energy of solid
How does addition of solute affect fb
lowers freezing point, b/c freezing--something b/comes more orderly-when a solute is added, any inpurity makes it more difficult to freeze
Where does water flow
to region of higher solute concentration (less water)
What is osmotic pressure
pressure need to prevent flow of water down its concentration gradient
When using osmotic pressure can you consider Molarity and Molality the same
How are colligative properties affected by non-electroyles, vs electroyles
based on particles, electrolytes have more particles!!!! must account for in equations
When are molarity and osmolarity equal
for non-electroytles
When are molarity and osmolarity not equal and why
electrolyes, need to correct for dissociation of electrolytes,
What is osmolarity equal to in electrolytes
i values x M or m
im =
What solution is consider ISOTONIC
What are normal NaCl values for blood
275-300 Osm/L
What is E value of .12
how much sodium a drug contributes
What does mEq measure
total IONIC charges (not particles)
mEq and realtion to millimoles
mEq is number of millimoles x CHARGE
Why is phosphate only measured mMol/L
b/c charge on phosphate can change
How do you calculate mEq for surcrose or other NON-inoic
YOU CANNOT--MEQ=O for stuff that doesnt have ionic charges!!!!
In Zero-order kinetics the suspension rate K depends on
DRUGS solubility
Explain how overage is NOT related to increase concentration
OVERAGE is NOT changing the formulation or drug in any way--porportate INCREASE in everything
What holds protein-drug complexes together
electrostatics, adn dipolar interactions
What does serum albumin bind
Cationic substance (+)
What functional group is most prone to hydrolysis
What is syrup
sweetened aqueous solution (sugar or substitue)
What is an elixer
swettend solution containing alcohol adn water
What is spirit
aromatic material in alcohol in water (peppermint oil, spearmint oil)
What are aromatic waters
solution of aromatic material
What is a tincture
extract of a natural substance dissolved in alcohol or in alcohol and water
What is an extract
concetnration prepartion of vegetable or animal material