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41 Cards in this Set

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Science
A way of learning about the natural world through observations and logical reasoning; leads to a body of knowledge. (p. 7)
Inferring
The process of making an inference, an interpretation based on observations and prior knowledge. (p. 7)
Observing
The process of using one or more of your senses to gather information. (p. 7)
Predicting
The process of forecasting what will happen in the future based on past experience or evidence. (p. 7)
Scientific inquiry
The ongoing process of discovery in science; the diverse ways scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on evidence they gather. (p. 8)
Hypothesis
A possible explanation for a set of observations or answer to a scientific question; must be testable. (p. 8)
Variable
A factor that can change in an experiment. (p. 9)
Controlled experiment
An experiment in which only one variable is manipulated at a time. (p. 9)
responding variable
The factor that changes as a result of changes to the manipulated, or independent, variable in an experiment; also called dependent variable. (p. 9)
manipulated variable
The one factor that a scientist changes during an experiment; also called independent variable. (p. 9)
data
Facts, figures, and other evidence gathered through observations. (p. 10)
scientific theory
A well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations. (p. 12)
energy
The ability to do work or cause change. (p. 14)
atmosphere
The envelope of gases that surrounds Earth. (p. 15)
lithosphere
A rigid layer made up of the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust. (p. 15)
hydrosphere
Earth's water and ice. One of the four spheres into which scientists divide Earth. (p. 15)
biosphere
All living things. One of the four spheres into which scientists divide Earth. (p. 15)
matter
Anything that has mass and takes up space. (p. 16)
wave
A disturbance that transfers energy from place to place. (p. 16)
heat
The transfer of thermal energy from one object to another because of a difference in temperature. (p. 17)
thermal energy
The total energy of motion in the particles of a substance. (p.17)
Earth Science
The science that focuses on planet Earth and its place in the universe. (p.18)
meteorologist
A scientist who studies the causes of weather and tries to predict it. (p. 18)
geologist
A scientist who studies the forces that make and shape planet Earth. (p. 18)
environmental scientist
A scientist who studies the effects of human activities on Earth's land, air, water, and living things and also tries to solve problems relating to the use of resources. (p. 18)
topography
The shape of the land determined by elevation, relief, and landforms. (p. 21)
landform
A feature of topography formed by the processes that shape Earth's surface. (p. 21)
relief
The difference in elevation between the highest and lowest parts of an area. (p. 21)
elevation
Height above sea level. (p. 21)
plain
A landform made up of flat or gently rolling land with low relief. (p. 22)
plateau
A landform that has high elevation and a more or less level surface. (p. 23)
mountain
A landform with high elevation and high relief. (p. 23)
scale
Used to compare distance on a map or globe to distance on Earth's surface. (p. 24)
map
A flat model of all or part of Earth's surface as seen from above. (p. 24)
degree
A unit used to measure distances around a circle. One degree equals 1/360 of a full circle. (p. 25)
latitude
The distance in degrees north or south of the equator. (p. 26)
longitude
The distance in degrees east or west of the prime meridian. (p. 26)
topographic map
A map that shows the surface features of an area. (p. 28)
contour line
A line on a topographic map that connects points of equal elevation. (pg. 29)
contour interval
The difference in elevation from one contour line to the next. (p. 29)
index contour
On a topographic map, a heavier contour line that is labeled with elevation of that contour line in round units. (p. 29)