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66 Cards in this Set

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When an entergy source is applied to the atoms of a material it can
affect the motion of the electrons
How can electrons be "knocked off" atoms and pushed from atom to atom?
through a conductor which makes an electric current.
Under normal conditions, atoms are electronically neutral because
there are the same number of protons and electrons. These charges balance each other.
Atoms become electronically charged when
they lose or gain electrons
Atoms that have more protons than electrons are _______ charged atom.
positively
Atoms that have more electrons than protons are __________ charged atom
negatively
A form of entergy that comes from electic charges found on matter is known as
electricity
______ is an electric charge found on the surface on the surface of an object.
Static electricity
Static means
not moving
Atoms that have the same number of electrons and protons are _____________
Neutral
The difference between an electromagnet and a regular bar magnet is that the bar magnet is
always a magnet and the electomagnet can always be turned on and off.
An electric discharge is
a quick movement of electric electrons from a negatiely charged object to a positive or neutral object.
5 kingdoms of living things
animals, plants, fungi, protists, monerans
Protists are
1 celled animals that contain a nucleus, usually live in moist places
Protists can be in 2 forms
1. animallike- moves about and eats other organisms Ex. ameba 2. Plantlike- makes its own food, contains chlorophyll, has a cell wall Ex. diatom
Fungi is
* plantlike living thing that does not have chlorophyll so must get food from the place where it lives
*can be many celled or 1 celled
Examples: mold mushrooms, yeast, mildew
Monerans are
1 celled organisms that do not have a nucleus.
Another name for monerans is
bacteria
Two kinds of monerans
1. blue-green: contains chlorophyll and makes own food
2. kind that does not contain cholrophyll. There are more of this kind and they are found everywhere- water, soil, air
Monerans can be helpful by
helping digest food
break down dead organisms
make products like yogurt
Harmful monerans can
cause illness
Bacteria
another name for monerans
Cell Membrane
surrounds and protects a cell
Cell Wall
a stiff structure outside the cell membrane in SOME cells
Cytoplasm
jellylike material that surrounds the nucleus in a cell
Nucleus
the control center ar "BRAIN" of a cell
Physical Change
a change in the size,shape or state of matter
Physical changes do not
change the matter to a new substance only chemical substances do that.
Examples: pulling a rubber band, writing on paper with colored chalk, ice cubes melting
Heat affects physical changes. When matter gets hotter
the particles of matter move FASTER AND FARTHER APART.
When matter cools, the particles of matter
move slower and pull closer together.
When most materials are heated, they ________
expand (move apart)
Example: A sidewalk, bridge, or highway expands in hot weather. They will crack if they don't have space between the sections.
When most materials are cooled, they ___________
contract (come together).
There are 2 "rule breakers"
1. Water
2. Rubber
Both expand when cooled to a certain temperature.
Example: a can of coke freezing and exploding in the freezer
When matter changes _________, an entirely new substance is formed.
chemically
Examples: 1. Adding vinegar to baking soda.The new substance is neither vinegar nor baking soda
2. Wood burning-the ashes left have no properties of the original wood; metal rushing
Mixture
Matter that has 2 or more substances combined.
Mixtures can be separated by ________ means.
Physical
Examples: iron ore- a mixture of iron and rock. Iron can be separated by grinding to a powder and passing large magnets over the powder to pick up the iron.
Air
a mixture of gases.
Gases can be separated by
cooling them and turning them into liquid
When liquid air is warmed again each gas will
boil and change back to gas at a different temperature. As that gas boils, that gas is collected.
Solution
a mixture in which the different particles of matter are spread evenly throughout.
Solution particles are so evenly divided that you
can't see them
Liquid solutions are
transparent
Solutions are made of:
1. a solvent (the larger part)
2. a solute (smaller part)
Example: sugar dissolved in water. Sugar is the solute and water is the solvent.
Invertebrates
animals without a backbone
Kinds of Invertebrates

KNOW 1 EXAMPLE OF EACH
1. Mollusks- have a soft body
Examples:
a. with no shell-octopus
b. with trap-door- snail
c. with hinged shell-clam
Kind of Invertebrates
Echinoderms- spiny-skinned, live in the ocean
EXAMPLE: starfish
Kind of Invertebrates
Worms- flat, round, segmented
Kind of Invertebrates
Sponges- do not move around
Kind of Invertebrates
Stinging cell- have poisonous treads

EXAMPLE: Jellyfish
Kind of Invertebrates
arthropods- have
1. jointed legs
2. segmented body
3. exoskeleton
Kinds of arthropods
1. crustaceans
2. arachnids
3. insects
4. many sectioned
Crustaceans
2 body sections
2 sets of antennae
EXAMPLE: Lobster
Arachnids-
2 body sections
No Antennae
EXAMPLE: Spider
Insects
3 body sections(head, thorax, abdomen)
6 legs, largest group of animals
Many-sectioned
Centipedes and Millipedes
Parasite
a living thing that lives in or in another living thing.
The parasite harms
the living thing on which it lives
Host
the living thing on which a parasite lives
The parasite depends on the ________ for food
Host
EXAMPLE: Tapeworm-lives inside the intestines ot the host and lives on the digested food of the host.
How does a sponge get food?
Sponge animals that are attached to hard surfaces can not move around and hunt for food.
They get their food by filtering the sea water that enters their pores. The water carries tiny bits of food with it. Cells in the sponge trap the food and let the seawater out.
7 things all plants need in order to grow properly
1. light 2. water 3. oxygen 4. carbon dioxide 5. minerals 6. proper temperature 7. space
The ________ of things that plants need will vary.
amounts
Plants grow in length from their _____.
tips
_____ near the top or tip end of trunks, branches, roots all expand and grow in length.
Cells
___________ stems grow in thickness because a layer of springwood and a layer of summerwood produced in the _________(tissue made of tubes that carry water and minerals through a plant) form an annual ring and make 1 year's growth.
Woody
Xylem
A response that helps a living thing survive.
Adaptation
EXAMPLES:1. long thick roots of a dandelion
2. thick outer covering of a cactusto store water and prevent evaporation
3. poisons produced by some plants to prevent animals from eating it.