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64 Cards in this Set

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Define temperature
a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object
What is the relationship between temperature and average kinetic energy?
as the average kinetic energy of an object increases, its temperature will increase
Fahrenheit formula
(1.8 x Celsius temp) + 32
Celsius formula
(Fahrenheit temp - 32) / 1.8
Kelvin formula
Celsius temp + 273
Identify heat as a form of energy transfer
the transfer of energy always takes place from a substance at a higher temperature to a substance at a lower temperature
What is the principle on which thermometers work?
most objects expand when their temperatures increase
How does a digital thermometer work?
it uses changes in electricity to measure temperature
How does a liquid thermometer work?
It uses the expansion of a liquid, alcohol or mercury to indicate change in temperature
What is absolute zero and whats its equivalent temp on other temp scales?
the temperature at which molecular energy is at a minimum, 0 kelvin or -273.16 C
Define heat
the energy transferred between objects that are at different temperatures
What is the specific heat equation?
energy = (specific heat) x (mass) x (temperature change)
Define specific heat
the quantity of heat required to raise a unit mass of homogeneous material
boiling point for Fahrenheit
212 degrees
freezing point
32 degrees
Define conduction
the transfer of energy as heat
Define Radiation
the energy that is transferred as electromagnetic waves, such as visible light and infrared waves
Define convection
the vertical movement of air currents due to temp variations
Define conductor
any material through which energy can be easily transferred as heat
Define insulator
poor conductor
Define electromagnetic waves
a wave that consists of oscillating electric and magnetic fields, which radiate outward at the speed of light
What causes the sensation of hot and cold, warm and cool?
energy transfer
What is the direction of flow or heat transfer?
it is transferred from the warmer object to the cooler object
What is the type of energy transferred between objects of different temperatures?
heat energy
What is the method of energy transfer?
conduction, convection, radiation
What is the method of energy transfer that does not require matter as a medium?
radiation
What is the law of conservation of energy?
energy cannot be created or destroyed
How is the body of a reptile sitting on a warm rock heated?
because the transfer of energy always takes place from a substance at a higher temp to a lower temp
Define conduction
the transfer of energy as heat
Define Radiation
the energy that is transferred as electromagnetic waves, such as visible light and infrared waves
Define convection
the vertical movement of air currents due to temp variations
Define conductor
any material through which energy can be easily transferred as heat
Define insulator
poor conductor
Define electromagnetic waves
a wave that consists of oscillating electric and magnetic fields, which radiate outward at the speed of light
What causes the sensation of hot and cold, warm and cool?
energy transfer
What is the direction of flow or heat transfer?
it is transferred from the warmer object to the cooler object
What is the type of energy transferred between objects of different temperatures?
heat energy
What is the method of energy transfer?
conduction, convection, radiation
What is the method of energy transfer that does not require matter as a medium?
radiation
What is the law of conservation of energy?
energy cannot be created or destroyed
How is the body of a reptile sitting on a warm rock heated?
because the transfer of energy always takes place from a substance at a higher temp to a lower temp
type of electromagnetic waves
light waves
Define melting
the change of state in which a solid becomes a liquid by adding heat or changing pressure
Define Freezing
the change of state in which a liquid becomes a solid as heat is removed
Define condensation
the change of state from a gas to a liquid
Define evaportation
the change of state from a liquid to a gas
Define sublimation
the process in which a solid changes directly into a gas (the term is sometimes also used for the reverse process)
Define endothermic
describes a process in which heat is absorbed from the environment
Define exothermic
describes a process in which a system releases heat into the environment
What is the kinetic theory of matter?
all matter is made of atoms and molecules, these tiny particles are in motion the higher temp the faster, at the same temp more massive particles move slower
What is that factor that determines the speed of atoms and molecules?
kinetic energy
What is the law of conservation of mass?
mass cannot be created or destroyed
Define solid
the state of matter in which the volume and shape of a substance are fixed
Define liquid
the state of matter that has a definite volume but not a definite shape
Define gas
a form of matter that does not have a definite volume or shape
Define plasma
a state of matter that starts as a gas and then becomes ionized
What is the only state of matter that is not a fluid?
gas
Define energy
the capacity to do work
What is the most common state of matter in the universe; in the solar system?
plasma
Why does a solid hold its shape?
because the structure of solid is rigid and the particles have almost no freedom to change position
What happens to the molecules and atoms of a substance when heat is added to the substance?
they move faster
What must be transferred for any change in state of matter to occur?
energy
Define Density
the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance
density formula
d=mv