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29 Cards in this Set

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In the hungry example, what are the sights, sounds, and smells of a restaurant?
Discriminative stimuli that evoke the response of asking for food
Discriminative stimulus (S^D)
-evokes a response because in the past that kind of response has been more successful in the presence of that stimulus than in its absence
How does an S^D come to control a particular type of behavior?
By being present when that behavior is reinforced
S^Delta
A stimulus that:
-suppresses a particular type of behavior because,
-in the past, that type of behavior was extinguished (i.e. not reinforced) in its presence, but reinforced in its absence
Stimulus control
-Behavior is under stimulus control when it differs in the presence and absence of a stimulus
What is required in order to develop stimulus control?
Differential reinforcement
Differential reinforcement
-A response is reinforced in the presence of one stimulus and extinguished in the presence of one or more other stimuli
How are the conditions of differential reinforcement arranged?
In operant discrimination training
What was the example with color of operant discrimination training?
Children are taught color names
-color is determined by the wavelengths of light that an object reflects
-particular wavelengths are S^Ds for saying particular names and we reinforce the correct naming
Stimulus generalization
When stimuli that differ along a given dimension control the same response
What was the color example of stimulus generalization?
When two objects that differ in wavelength (are two different colors) both control the response of saying "blue" (they are functionally equivalent)
Why do people differ with respect to discrimination training?
Because we learn the discriminations that are relevant to our personal environments.
What are many discriminations based on?
Multiple stimulus dimensions

(e.g. recognizing your best friend)
Conditional discrimination
whether a response is reinforced in the presence of one stimulus depends on the presence of a second stimulus
What was the clock example of conditional discrimination?
The clock (a stimulus) does not evoke a response until your friend asks you what time it is (another stimulus)
What does stimulus control play a critical role in?
The development of complex human behavior
What is it not enough to think of behavior in terms of?
Its consequences, because consequences of behavior only increase frequency in the presence of the circumstances when reinforcement occurred
What are the "circumstances"?
Motivational variables and S^Ds
How does reinforcement make both E.O.s and S^Ds into antecedent events?
Because reinforcement gives them evocative functions
What three things should be identified when thinking about behavior?
1) Motivational variable
2) Discriminative stimulus
3) Reinforcer
Shaping
procedure whereby a given operant response is achieved by reinforcing successively closer approximations to that response
What is the first step of shaping?
Initially reinforcing an existing response that is closest to the terminal response
What do you do after the first step of shaping?
Adopt new criterion for reinforcement that demands a response more similar to the terminal behavior
How did a parent teach their child to say "dad"?
-First reinforced babbling.
-Then selectively reinforced only "da" sounds. (Extinction of sounds that aren't da; extinction causes an increase in variability of behavior)
-Final criterion for reinforcement is "dad"
What were the dolphin and the porpoise taught with shaping?
Dolphin: fly through the air to get a fish

Porpoise: novel behavior such as tail walking, somersaults, spins
What can shaping also be responsible for?
Undesired behavior (e.g. sick social cycle of child's crying being reinforced by parent's consoling)
Response chaining
a procedure in which a sequence of behaviors must be emitted before the unconditioned reinforcer is delivered;

only the terminal response is met with the reinforcer
What do prior responses in a response chain (sequence) provide?
An opportunity for subsequent responses to occur
Vending machine example of response chaining
The sequence of behaviors include getting change, putting change in the machine, pushing a button.

Only the final movement of the can to your lips is followed by the reinforcer of pop