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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
fact, the real world, that which exists and can be seen through the experience of our own senses
EMPRICIAL STATEMENT
judgements about what should be done
NORMATIVE STATEMENT
normative or empirical:

hurricane katrina was the worst hurricane, in terms of lives lost, to hit a major US city in history
EMPIRICAL
normative or empirical

local, federal, and state officials responded poorly to hurricane katrina
NORMATIVE- DEF. OF POOR RESPONSE?
normative or empirical

israeli land concessions result in reduced palestinian suicide attacks
EMPERICAL
normative or empirical

most isu students are republicans
EMPIRICAL
5 RESEARCH CRITERIA!!!
CLARITY
TESTABILTIY
THEORETICAL SIGNIFIGANCE
PRACTICAL RELEVANCE
ORIGINALITY
presmed to be the cause
INDEPENDENT VARIABLES
effect or consequence
DEPENDANT VARIABLES
additional variables that might affect the relaationship b/t the independent and dependant variables
CONTROL VARIABLS

look for controlling for, holding constant
Holding education, region, and income constant, there is little difference in voter turnout between whites and African-Americans

independant variable...
RACE
Holding education, region, and income constant, there is little difference in voter turnout between whites and African-Americans

dependant variable...
VOTER TURNOUT
Holding education, region, and income constant, there is little difference in voter turnout between whites and African-Americans

control variables...
EDUCATION, INCOME, REGION
Holding education, region, and income constant, there is little difference in voter turnout between whites and African-Americans

units of analysis...
INDIVIDUALS
The larger a city, the higher the crime rate

independant variable...
SIZE
The larger a city, the higher the crime rate

dependant variable...
CRIME RATE
The larger a city, the higher the crime rate

units of analysis...
CITIES
specify exactly how each variable will be measured, often determined by units of analysis
OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS

what we want, when and how we will get it
Winning candidates have more positive perceptions of voters than do losing candidates

operational definitions...
POSITIVE PERCEPTIONS- interview candidates for state legislature ask how informed they think voters are

WINNING/LOSING- review report of state election commission
empirical or normative

62% of american people think the president is doing a good job
EMPIRICAL
emp or norm

most african americans vote republican
EMPIRICAL
emp or norm

is it more important to adopt policies that will protect the enviornment, or policies that will maximize economic growth?
NORMATIVE
emp or norm

it is better to to have nonpartisan elections for local governement b/c there will be less corruption
NORMATIVE
emp or norm

if a foreign policy desicion would increase US exports, than that's what should be done.
NORMATIVE
emp or norm

putting courtroom trials on TV distorts the judicial process and defeats justice.
NORMATIVE
emp or norm

why do communist and socialist nations have lower incomes than capitilast nations?
EMPIRICAL
emp or norm

allowing people to carry concealed weapons lowers the crime rate
EMPIRICAL
emp or norm

the current practice of campaign-fundraising is corrupting the character of American democracy
NORMATIVE
emp or norm

is affirmative action an unconstitutional form or reverse discrimination?
NORMATIVE
emp or norm

political parties have fulfilled a majority of their platform promises over the years
EMPIRICAL
ind/dep/control variables, UOA

media attention is neccessary for a candidate to succeed in a primary election
IND- MEDIA ATTENTION
DEP- ELECTION SUCCESS
UOA- CANDIDATES
ind/dep/control variables, UOA

with education, income and region held constant, there is little difference in voter turnout b/t whites and blacks
IND- RACE
DEP- VOTER TURNOUT
CONTROL- EDUCATION, INCOME, REGION
UOA- INDIVIDUALS
ind/dep/control variables, UOA

southern states have less party competetion than northern states.
IND- REGION
DEP- PARTY COMPETETION
UOA- STATES
ind/dep/control variables, UOA

when length of time since independence is held constant, democracies are more stable than dictotorships.
IND- TYPE OF GOVT
DEP- STABILITY
CONTROL- LENGHT OF TIME SINCE IND.
UOA- NATIONS
ind/dep/control variables, UOA

the larger a city, the higher the crime rate tends to be
IND- SIZE
DEP- CRIME RATE
UOA- CITIES
operational definitions

controlling for education, the more urban an area, the lower the voter turnout
EDUCATION- YEARS OF EDUCATION PPL 25 OR OLDER, U.S. STATISTICAL ABSTRACT

URBANIZATION- POP. OF 2500 OR MORE, US BUREAU OF CENSUS

VOTER TURNOUT- NUMBER OF
BALLOTS CAST, US STAT ABSTRACT
operational definitions

people who percieve thay they are better off economically then to vote for the incumbent candidate for president.
ECONOMIC PERCEPTION- SURVEY, DO YOU THINK FAMILY IS WORSE OR BETTER OFF THAN YOU WERE 4 YRS AGO

PRES VOTE- ASK WHO RESPONDENTS VOTED FOR IN LAST ELECTION
operational definitions

nations that recieve US foriegn aid are more likely to support america in foreign policy.
FORIEGN AID- DID NATION RECIEVE ANY ASSITANCE FROM US, US STATE DEPT

SUPPORT IN FOREIGN POLICY- HOW MUCH NATIONS VOTED FOR US IN GENERAL ASSEMBLY, UNITED NATIONS YEARBOOK
operational definitions

winning candidates have more positive perceptions of voters than do losing candidates.
POSTIVE PERCEPTIONS- INTERVIEW CANDIDATES FOR STATE LEGISLATURE, ASK IF THEY THINK VOTERS ARE WELL INFORMED

WINNING/LOSING- LOOK AT REPORT OF STATE ELECTION COMMISSION, SEE WHO WON AND LOST
operational definitions

the better the state of the economy, the better the candidate of the incumbent president's party do in congressional elections.
STATE OF ECONOMY- CHANGE IN INCOMR OF PEOPLE IN AREA, ANNUAL REPORT OF COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS

SUCCESS OF INC. PRES PARTY- SEE WHAT PERCENT OF SEATS WERE WON BY PRES PARTY, CONGRESSIONAL QUARTERLY WEEKLY REPORT
ind/dep/control and UOA

rural areas have lower crime rates than urban areas.
IND- URBANIZATION
DEP- CIME RATES
UOA- DEMOGRAPHIC (CITIES, STATES)
ind/dep/control and UOA

with age held constant, education and poltical participation are positively related.
IND- EDUCATION
DEP- POLITICAL PARTICIPATION
CONTORL- AGE
UOA- INDIVIDUAL
ind/dep/control and UOA

the more negative the advertising in a us senatorial campaign, the lower the voter turnout rate.
IND- NEG. CAMPAIGN
DEP- LOW VOTER TURNOUT
UOA- US STATES
ind/dep/control and UOA

with gnp held constant, communist nations spend more than capitalist nations for the military.
IND- TYPE OF ECONOMY
DEP- MONEY SPENT
CONTROL- GNP
UOA- NATION
ind/dep/control and UOA

the better the state of the economy, the greater the proportion of votes recieved by theparty of the president.
IND- STATE OF ECONOMY
DEP- NUMBER OF VOTES RECEIVED
UOA- ELECTIONS
ind/dep/control and UOA

controlling for political party, a legislatives vote on abortiono are related to his or her religion and education.
IND- RELIGION/EDUCATION
DEP- VOTE ON ABORTION
CONTROL- POLITICAL PARTY
UOA- POLITICAIAN
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION

the more a congressional candidate spends, the mre successful his/her campaign
MONEY SPENT- AMT SPENT BY THE FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION

SUCCESS- PERCENT OF VOTES RECIEVED BY CANDIDATE ACCORDING TO AMERICA VOTES
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION

the more economically developed a nation, the lower the level of political instability
ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPED- GNP AS REPORTED BY THE UNITED NATIONS YEARBOOK

POLITICAL INSTABILITY- AVG NUMBER OF ASSASSINATIONS/ERRANEOUS POLITICAL ACTIVITY ACCORDING TO WORLD HANDBOOK OF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL INDICATORS
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION

the higher the leve of a person's education, the more likely he or she is to favog legal abortion.
LEVEL OF EDUCATION- SURVEY, HOW MANY YEARS OF SCHOOL DID YOU FINISH?

ABORITON- SO YOU BELIEVE ABORTION SHOULD BE LEGALIZED STILL?
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION

the more cometetive political parties are in a state, the more the state spends on education.
PARTY COMPETETION- NUMBER OF REPUBLICAN VOTES AND DEMOCRATICE VOTES AS REPORTED BY AMERICA VOTES

STATE SPENDING ON EDUCATION- AMOUNT SPENT ACCORDING TO THE US STATISTICAL ABSTRACT
REFORMULATE USING EA METHOD

should the united states increase the amount of foriegn aid it gives to poor nations?
INCREASING THE AMOUNT OF FOREIGN AID TO THIRD WORLD NATIONS WOULD DECREASE THE AMOUNT OF FEDERAL SPENDING ON EDUCATION, THE MILITARY, AND OUR BUDGET DEFECIT
REFORMULATE USING EA METHOD

would we be better off if congress and the presidency were controlled byt eh same political party?
WHEN THE PRESIDENCY AND CONGRESS HAVE BEEN CONTROLLED BY THE SAME POLITICAL PARTY, EMPLOYMENT RATES HAVE RISEN AND AMOUNT OF PEOPLE DEPENDANT ON WELFARS HAS DECREASED

ARE FEDERAL BUDGET DEFECITS GREATER IN YEARS OF UNIFIED PARTY CONTROL THAN YEARS OF DIVIDED CONTROL?
REFORMULATE USING EA METHOD

since poor education is the biggest problem facing the nation, spending for schools should be increased.
CHILDREN ATTENDING SCHOOLS THAT RECIEVE VERY LITTLE EDUCATION SPENDING GET LOWER GRADES ON TESTS COPARED TO STUDENTS ATTENDING SCHOOLS THAT RECEIEVE MORE PUBLIC SPENDING.
REFORMULATE USING EA METHOD

negative campaign adverstising is whats wrong with elections today.
NEGATIVE CAMPAIGNING DECREASES THE AMOUNT OF VOTERS WHO COE OUT ON ELECTION DAY.
REFORMULATE USING EA METHOD

do we need a new political party to represent middle- of the road views
A NEW POLITICAL PARTY WITH CENTRAL IDEAS HAVE RECIEVED A MAJORITY OF THE VOTE THROUGHOUT HISTORY.
EVALUATE ON THE 5 RESEARCH CRITERIA

how democratice is the US political system?
CLARITY- not very precise, although the variables are known, they are not specific. democratic could be defined many different ways, and the political system is not justified.
TESTABILITY- the question is testable and data is avaible, altough making the question more precise would make obtaining information easier
THEORETICAL SIGNIFIGANCE- it is fairly TS, may explain how the political system works to those who are unfamiliar with it.
PRACTICAL SIGNIFICANCE- this may lead people to be more likely to vote b/c they understand how their gov't works more efficeintly
ORIGINALITY- the question is fairly original and has not been well established
EVALUATE ON THE 5 RESEARCH CRITERIA

who shot president kennedy?
CLARITY- the question is down to the point and the variables are obvious
TESTABLE- the data is avaialable, many theoires have been tested and many have their own conclusions
TS- explain exactly what happened according to a certain authour
PS- may lead to explanations of other presidential assassinations or shootings
ORIGINAL- not original at all, the question has been asked many times and it seems the answer will never be known...

SHOULD CHANGE IT BECAUSE IT DEALS WITH A SINGLE SUBJECT!
EVALUATE ON THE 5 RESEARCH CRITERIA

which memebr of the us house had the poorest attendance record on roll call voting in the last session?
CLARITY- the question is clear and the variables are present
TESTABLE- the question is easily testable, can get information from congressional records
TS- not TS or PR, don't need to know, doesn't improve knowledge of the subject
ORIGINAL- probably original
EVALUATE ON THE 5 RESEARCH CRITERIA

are voters desicions' in recent presidential elections influence more by their attitudes on abortion or by their perceptions of the economic situation?
CLARITY- very clear and precie question
TESTABILITY- info easily obtained by conducting a survey
TS- explain why voters tend to vote they way they do according to party
PS- may lead to different techniques of politicians to rally and collect votes
ORIGINAL- since question is so specific, it is most likely original