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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Proton Charge? Location?
+1, Nucleus
Neutron Charge? Location?
0, Nucleus
Electron Charge? Location?
-1, Outside Nucleus
Atom consists of what three subatomic particles?
Proton, Nuetron and Electron
Electron affects...?
How a particular atom will react with atoms of other elements.
Ground State?
Electrons in the lowest available energy.
Excited State
When an atom absorbs energy and the electrons move to a higher energy level.
Atoms of one element that vary only in the number of neutrons in the nucleus.
Isotopes that are radioactive and emit half-life.
Particles and decay emited from Radioisotopes.
A Bond is formed when...
When two atomic nuclei attract the same electrons. They bond to form stability and to acquire a complete outer shell.
Ionic Bond
Form when electrons are transferred.
An atom that gains electrons. Stands for a negative ion.
An atom that loses electrons. Stands for a positive ion.
Covalent Bond
Formed when atoms share electrons.
When more than one atoms shares elecrons, joining them by a covalent bond.
Intermolecular Attractions
When individual molecules attract to each other.
Polar-Polar Attraction
When two or more atoms form a bond. Either Polar- Strong/Unbalanced or Nonpolar- Weak/Balanced
Hydrogen Bonds
Occurs beween molocules containing atoms that exert a strog pull on their atoms on a living thing. It keeps the two DNA strands together and causes water molocules to stick together and is responsible for many of Water's special charactoristics.
True or False? Polar substances dissolve in water? Non-Polar?
True, False
Water's 6 Special Charactoristics?
1. High specific heat.
2. High heat of vaporization.
3. High adhession prop.
4. Universal solvent
5. Strong cohesion tension between water molocules
6. Ice is less dence than water
Measurement of Acidity
Base (pH)
pH Acidity Scale Measurement
pH is 10 times more acidic each step. EX. pH 1 is 10 times more acidic than pH 2.
Substances that resist change in pH by absorbing excess hydrogen ions or donating when too few.
Organinc Compound
Compounds that contain carbon.
Consist of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. They supply quick energy and release 4 cal. per carb. Consist of monosaccharides, desaccahrdes and polysacccharides
Have a formula of C6 H12 O6. Glucose, Galactose and fructose are part of this group and are isomers of each other.
Compunds that have diffrent structures and the same molecular formula.
Have the chemical formula of 612 H22 O11. Consist of two Monosac. joined by dehydration synthesis. Maltose, lactose and sucrose are part of this group.
Monosaccharide + Monosaccharide=?. What is this formula.
Disaccharide and Water. Dehydration Synthesis.
Dehydration Synthesis

Glucose + Glucose=?
Maltose + Water
Dehydration Synthesis

Glucose + Galactose=?
Lactose + Water
Dehydration Synthesis

Glucose + Fructse=?
Sucrose + Water
Breakdown of a compound. Occurs during digestion and is the reverse of Dehydration Synthesis
Polymers of carbs. Form as many monosaccharides join by Dehydration Synthesis. Consist of cellulose, starch, chitin and glycogen.
Make up cell walls
The way sugar is stored in plants
Makes the endoskeleton in arthropods and cell walls in mushrooms.
Animal starch. Stored in liver and skeletal muscle.
Contain one glycerol and three fatty acids. Purposes:

Energy Storage- Release 9 cal per lipid.
Structural- Make up the cell membrane
Endocrine- Some are in hormones.
An alcahol
Fatty Acid
Hydrogen Chain. Building blocks of lipids. Two types: Saturated and Unsaturated.
Saturated Fats
Come from animals. Solid at room temp. Not good for heart. Contain single bonds between carbon atoms.
Unsaturated Fats
Extracted from plants, liquid at room temp. Good fats. Have a double bond between carbon atoms. Fewer Hydrogen atoms.
Polymer or polypeptide made of amino acids and joined by peptide bonds. Responsable for growth and repair. 4 cal. per protein. Consist of Sulfer, Phosphate, Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen and Nitrogen. 20 Amino Acids, Ezymes are proteins.
Molocule consiting of two amino acids connected by a peptide bond.
Protein function depends on...
Primary Structure of Protein
Results from sequence of AA, making a chain
Secondary Structure of Protein
Results from hydrogen bonding within molocules.
Protein shape is dependent on...
Four Levels
Tertiary Structure of Protien
3D shape of protein that most directly determines the shape and function. This is what denatures when a protein is changed.
To lose the natural shape
Quanternary Structure of Protein
Refers to proteins with more than one polypeptide chain.
Nucleic Acids
DNA and RNA. Polymers of nucleotides. Contain the genetic Code
Chains of repeating units
Contains a phosphate, a 5-carbon sugar (Deoxyribose of Ribose) and a nitrogenous base. Building blocks of DNA and RNA that store the genetic code. 4 bases: Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine and Thymine. In RNA, Thymine is changed to Uracil.
Bigger nucleotides, Adenine and Guanine
Smaller nucleotides, Thymine, Cytosine and Uracil
Large protein that speed up reactions by lowering energy of activation. Works on a substrate. Reused. End in the "-ase" ending. Work with coenzymes and cofactors. Affected by pH and temperature. Denature in bad conditions. Enzyme must fit into substrate in order for reaction to occur.
Energy of Activation in Enzymes
Amount of energy needed to begin a reaction.
Chemical that an enzyme works with
Active Site
Where the enzyme and substrate meet
"-ase" ending
Infectious proteins that cause brain disease. Mad Cow Disease is part of this. A prion is a misfolded version of a protein found in the brains of animals. A prion can cause all the regular proteins to misfold as well.