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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES ASSOCIATED WITH LIVING THINGS ARE KNOWN AS
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
ALL MATTER IN THE UNIVERSE IS COMPOSED OF ONE OR MORE
ELEMENTS
Na IS THE ABBREVIATION FOR
SODIUM
ATOMS CONSIST OF NEUTRAL PARTICLES CALLED NEUTRONS AND POSITVELY CHARGED PARTICLES CALLED
PROTRONS
THE NUMBER OF PROTRONS FOUND IN AN ATOM IS REFERRED TO AS ITS
ATOMIC NUMBER
ATOMS ARE MOST STABLE WHEN THEIR OUTER SHELL IS FILLED WITH EITHER TWO ELECTRONS OR
EIGHT ELECTRONS
A REACTION THAT RESULTS IN THE GAN OF ELECTRONS BY ONE OF THE PARTICIPANTS IS CALLED A(N)
REDUCTION
AN ION IS AN ATOM THAT HAS LOST OR GAINED ONE OR MORE ELECTRONS AND HAS ACQUIRED A(N)
ELECTRICAL CHARGE
PRECISE ARRANGEMENTS OF ATOMS DERIVED FROM DIFFERENT ELEMENTS CONSTITUTE A(N)
MOLECULE
THE COMPOUND GLUCOSE IS COMPOSED OF ATOMS OF OXYGEN HYDROGEN, AND
CARBON
THE SUM OF THE ATOMIC MASSES OF THE ATOMS IN A MOLECULE IS EXPRESSED AS THE
MOLECULAR MASS
WHEN THE ELECTRONS OF ONE ATOM ARE TRANSFERRED TO A SECOND ATOM, TWO IONS FORM, AND WHEN THEY ARE ATTRACTED TO ONE ANOTHER, THE RESULT IS A BOND CALLED A(N)
IONIC BOND
METHANE IS AN EXAMPLE OF A COMPOUND FORMED AS A RESULT OF
COVALENT
THE REASON THAT CARBON ENTERS INTO INNUMERABLE CHEMICAL COMBINATIONS IS THAT ITS OUTER ELECTRON SHELL HAS ELECTRONS NUMBERING
FOUR
ONE EXAMPLE OF A COMPOUND RESULTING FROM IONIC BONDING IS TABLE SALT OR
SODIUM CHLORIDE
WHEN PLACED IN WATER, AN ACID IS A CHEMICAL COMPOUND THAT RELEASES
HYDROGEN ATOMS
SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE ARE BOTH EXAMPLES OF SUBSTANCES CALLED
BASES
CARBOHYDRATES SERVE THE HUMAN BODY AS STRUCTURAL MATERIAL AND AS SOURCES OF
ENERGY
ALL CARBOHYDRATE MOLECULES ARE COMPOSED OF THREE DIFFERENT TYPES OF ATOMS, NAMELY CARBON, OXYGEN, AND
HYDROGEN
THE SIMPLEST CARBOHYDRATES ARE COMPOSED OF SINGLE UNIT MOLECULES CALLED
MONOSACCHARIDES
THOSE CARBOHYDRATES COMPOSED OF TWO UNIT MOLECULES COVALENTLY BONDED TO EACH OTHER ARE CALLED
DISACCHARIDES
STARCH, GLYCOGEN, AND CELLULOSE ARE EXAMPLES OF COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES REFERRED TO AS
POLYSACCHARIDES
THREE EXAMPLES OF MONOSACCHARIDES ARE FRUCTOSE, GALACTOSE, AND
GLUCOSE
LACTOSE IS THE PRINCIPLE CARBOHYDRATE FOUND IN
MILK
CELLULOSE IS THE CARBOHYDRATE THAT CANNOT BE BROKEN DOWN IN THE BODY AND IS THERFORE USED AS
DIETARY FIBER
FATS, STEROIDS, AND WAXES ALL BELONG TO THE CLASS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS KNOWN AS
LIPIDS
THE ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF A FAT ARE ONE, TWO, OR THREE MOLECULES OF FATTY ACID BONDED TO A MOLECULE OF
GLYCEROL
THOSE FATS IN WHICH MORE HYDROGEN ATOMS COULD BE ACCOMMODATED IN THEIR FATTY ACID MOLECULES ARE SAID TO BE
UNSATURATED
THE TISSUE IN HUMANS WHERE FAT IS STORED IN LARGE GOBULES IS CALLED
ADIPOSE TISSUE
A DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS IS A PROCESS IN WHICH FATTY ACIDS ARE LINKED TO GLYCEROL MOLECULES WITH THE REMOVAL OF
WATER
EVERY FATTY ACID CONTAINS AN ORGANIC ACID GROUP AND NUMEROUS -OH GROUPS KNOWN AS
HYDROXYL GROUPS
DURING THE DIGESTIVE PROCESS, FATS ARE BROKEN DOWN TO YIELD FATTY ACIDS AND GLYCEROL BY THE ENZYME
LIPASE
THE FOUR COMPONENT ELEMENTS OF ALL AMINO ACIDS ARE CARBON, HYDROGEN, OXYGEN, AND
NITROGEN
THE NUMBER OF DIFFERENT AMINO ACIDS COMPOSING VIRTUALLY ALL PROTEINS IN THE BODY IS
20
WHEN AMINO ACIDS LINK TOGETHER TO FORM A PROTEIN, THE LINKAGE BINDING THEM IS CALLED A(N)
PEPTIDE BOND
PROTEINS ARE USED FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF CELLULAR PARTS AND FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF CHEMICAL CATALYSTS KNOWN AS
ENZYMES
EVERY AMINO ACID MOLECULE HAS AN AMINO GROUP AND AND ORGANIC ACID GROUP REPRESENTED AS
-COOH
THE LINKING OF AMINO ACIDS TOGETHER TO FORM A PEPTIDE OCCURS BY THE PROCESS OF
DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS
SUPPORTING AND STRENGTHENING MATERIALS OF THE BODY, COMPOSED IN PART OF PROTEIN, INCLUDE BONE, TENDONS, LIGAMENTS, AND
CARTILAGE
TWO HORMONES OF THE BODY THAT ARE COMPOSED EXCLUSIVELY OF PROTEIN ARE HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE AND
INSULIN
WHEN PROTEINS ARE TO BE USED AS ENERGY SOURCES, THE CONVERSION TO AN ENERGY-YIELDING CMPOUND IS ACCOMPLISHED IN THE
LIVER
THE BUILDING BLOCKS THAT COMPOSE NUCLEIC ACIDS ARE CALLED
NUCLEOTIDES
THE MATERIAL OF WHICH THE GENES ARE COMPOSED IS
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA)
THE NITROGENOUS BASE URACIL IS FOUND ONLY IN THE NUCLEIC ACID CALLED
RIBONUCLEIC ACID
THE NITROGENOUS BASES ADENINE AND GUANINE BELONG TO A CLASS OF MOLECULES CALLED
PURINES
IN THE DOUBLE HELIX OF DNA, ADENINE AND THYMINE STAND OPPOSITE ONE ANOTHER, AND THE OTHER TWO BASES THAT STAND OPPOSITE EACH OTHER ARE
GUANINE AND CYTOSINE
THE DOUBLE HELIX FORM THAT DNA TAKES RESEMBLES A SPIRAL
STAIRCASE
EVERY HUMAN CELL, WITH THE EXCEPTION OF RED BLOOD CELLS AND REPRODUCTIVE CELLS, CONTAINS A SET OF CHROMOSOMES NUMBERING
46
AFTER DNA REPLICATION, ONE OLD STRAND IS UNITED WITH ONE NEW STRAND MADE BY THE PROCESS CALLED
SEMICONSERVATIVE REPLICATION
THE BACKBONE OF THE DNA MOLECULE CONSISTS OF PHOSPHATE GROUPS AND MOLECULES OF THE CARBOHYDRATE
DEOXYRIBOSE