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92 Cards in this Set

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Which of the following is the function of the turbinates?
Increase the surface area of the nasasl cavity
Which function of the nose is lost if a plastic endotracheeal tube is inserted through the nose or mouth and into the trachea?
Air- conditioning
In a deeply unconscious patient, which of the following is the most common threat to upper airway patency?
Soft tissue obstruction
Which of the following structures is an important landmark during the insertion of a tube into the trachea?
Vallecula
What is the narrowest portion of the airway in the infant?
Cricoid ring
What is the narrowest portion of the airway in the adult larynx?
Glottis
Which of the folliwng is the term assoicated with a sound created by a high veocity air flowing thru a narrowed glottis?
Stridor
Which feature of the trachea prevents collapse from external pressure, especially during virgorous coughing?
Rigidity
If an edoctracheal tube is inserted too far in the process of intubation, it's tip is more likely to enter the left bronchus(T?F)
False
Which of the following is the best description of the conduction airway mucosal epitehlium?
Columnar, ciliated, pseudostratified cells with goblet cells
Which group of cells comprises most of the alveolar surface?
Type I
Which group of cells engulfs microogransims and foregn material in the alveolus?
Macrophages
What is the term that describes the presences of fluid in the pleural space caused by inflammation?
Plueral effusion
What is the meaning of the anatomical shunting?
That systemic arterial blood can never hanve the same partial pressure of oxygen as the alveolar gas.
Which of the following is the source of innervation for the lungs?
Autonomic nervous system
Which of the following is a good example of slowly adaption strectch receptors?
Herring- Breuer reflex
You are assisting a PGY-1 surgery resident with the insertion of a chest tube. The resident turns to you aking which border of the rib he should aboid when placing the tube. Your answer should be:
The lower border
Which of the following parts of the sternum marks the level of the carina?
Angle of Louis
Which of the following is the primary muscle active in quite breathing
Diaphragm
If the lungs fail to empty normally during exhalation, because of either weakened elastic recoil forces or high resistance to airflow, the retained volume causes which change in the chest radiograph?
Flattening of the diaphragm
Although the diaphrgm is the principal muscle of inspiration, it is not essential for survival.
True
Which are responsible for the creation of the subatmospheric pressure between the lung and chest wall?
The lung has a tendency to recoil inward and pull away from the chest wall AND the thorax has a tendency to recoil outward, way from the lung.
What causes air to move in or out of the lungs while keeping the lungs in an inflated state?
Pressure gradients
Change in lung volume resulting from a unit of pressure change is known as which of the following?
Lung compliance
Which of the following statements is true of stiff lungs or patients with restrictive disorders?
The more elastic the lung, the less its' compliance.
Which of the following condtions is charracterized by a loss of elastic lung tissue?
Emphysema (Floppy lung)
Which of the following conditions is characterized by high lung recoil forces?
Pulmonary fibrosis
Which of the following is the function of the surfactant?
Lower surface tension
What is the normal CLT?
0.1 L/cm/H20
What is the normal CL
0.2L/ cm H20
Which of the following explains the rapid, shllow breathing strategy of patients with pulmonary fibrosis?
High elastance
VE is the product of which of the following parameters?
VTxf
Which of the following terms defines the conducting airways from the mourth and nose down to and including terminal bronchioles?
Anatomical dead space
What is the approximate amount of anatomical dead space in normal adults?
1 mL/ pound IBW
Which of the following terms describes the rise in PaCO2 above normal?
Hypercapnia
Normally, approximately what percentage of the inspired Vt remains in conducting airways, never reaching alveoli?
30% to 40%
What is the primary purpose of the respiratory system?
continuous absorption of oxygen and excretion of carbon dioxide
what is meant by "internal respiration"?
exchange of gases between blood and the tissue
By what mechanism does gas exchange across the lung occur?
simple diffusion
Which chromosome has been found to carry the defective gene responsible for the development of cystic fibrosis?
7
What genetic disorder has been linked to emphysema?
a1-antitrypsin deficiency
What is rather unique regarding the blood supply to the lung?
It recieves blood from right and left ventricles
Running vertically down each himthorax anteriorly is an imaginary line that is used as an anatomical landmark. What is that line called?
midclavicular line
What is the name of the thin serious membrane that covers the inner layer of the thoracic wall?
parietal pleura
how far is the diaphragm pulled dlow during tidal breathing?
1 to 2 cm
What pulmonary disorder could lead to acute flattening of the diaphragm?
asthma
The diaphragm is innervated by which of the following nerves?
phrenic
What is the function of the very small amount of pleural fluid that is found in the plueral space?
reduces friction
What will most commonly blunt the costophrenic angle as seen on chest radiograph in an upright individual?
excess fluids
Which of the follwing statements describe a normal adult lung?
the right lung has three lobes and two fissures.
The pulmonary arterial circulation does which of the following?
devlievers unoxygenated blood to the lungs and orginates on the right side of the heart
The pulmonary venous circulation does what?
delievers oxygenated blood back to the heart and empties into the left atrium
Compared with the systemic circulation, pressure in the normal pulmonary circulation is:
lower
The upper respiratory tract traditionally ends at what point?
inferior border of the larynx
What is your primary concern if you discover that a patient does not have a gag reflex?
fear of aspiration of bacteria or food
The subdivisions of the pharynx are
nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
What is the leaf-shape carilage that extends from the based of the tongue and is attached by lgaments to the throid cartilage?
epiglottis
What is the space that separates the true vocal cords?
glottis
What position is used to open the airway in an unconscious patient?
sniff position
At what point does the trachea branch into two mainstrem bronchi?
carina
What portion of the left lung corresponds anatomically to the middle lobe of the right lung?
lingula
What is the name given to the action produced by the forward stroking of millions of cilia?
mucocilliary escalator
What is the common name given to classify the airway from the nares to the terminal bronchioles?
conducting airways
What is called the "functional unit of the lungs"?
acinus
Pulmonary surfactant is secreted by which type of lung cells?
type II pneumocytes
Most of the muscle mass of the heart is located in which chamber?
left ventricle (LV)
The mitral (bicuspid) valve does which of the following?
prevents atrial backflow during ventricular contraction
What is the ability of myocardial tissue to propagate electrical impulses?
automaticity
Which of the following represent the normal order of structures encountered by blood flowing from the vena cava to the aorta?
RA, tricuspid valve, RV, pulmonary valve, pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, LA, mitral valve, LV, aortic valve
Which of the following formulas is used to calculate the total amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute, or cardiac output?
Rate x stroke volume
The first heart sound is associated with what mechanical event of the cardiac cycle?
atrioventricular valve closure
The second heart sound is associated with what mechanical event of the cardiac cycle?
semilunar valve closure
During each cycle of normal resting ventilation, a volume of gas is moved into and out of the respiratory tract. The cyclical volume is called the:
tidal volume (Vt)
What pressures vary throughout the normal breathing cycle?
alveolar pressure (Palv) and pleural pressure (Ppl)
Which of the pressure gradients is responsible for the actual flow of gas into and out of the lungs during breathing?
transrespiratory pressure gradient (Palv-Pao)
Which of the following pressure gradients is responsible for maintinaing alveolar inflation?
transpulmonary pressure gradient (Palv-Ppl)
During expiration, why does gas flow out from the lungs to the atmosphere?
Palv is greater than at the airway opening
What term is used to note the difference between inspiratory lung volume and expiratory lung volume at any given pressure?
hysterisis
The presence of surfactant in the alveoli tends to do which of the following?
decrease surface tension
What occurs at a lung volume equivalent to the functional residual capacity (FRC)?
The forces of the chest wall and lungs are in balance, chest wall expansion is offset by lung contraction, and opposing chest wall-lung forces generate negative Ppl.
What is the term for the impedance to ventilation caused by the movement of gas through the conducting system of the lungs?
airway resistance
How is airway resistance (Raw) computed?
change in pressure/ change in volume
Normal Raw is approximately which of the following?
0.5 to 2.5 cm H2O/L/sec
If a patient has Vt of 370 ml and repiratory rate of 20 breaths per minute, what is the minute ventilation?
7.40 L/ min
A patient has a Vt of 625 ml and physiological dead space of 275 ml and is breathing at a frequency of 16 per minute. what is the alveolar ventilation (VA)?
5600 ml/min
A normal 150 lb man is breathing at a rate of 17 with a tidal volume of 450 ml. By estimation, what is his approximate alveolar ventilation?
5.10 L/ min
In what portion of the lungs does alvelolar dead space normally occur?
apices
Which is the correct formula to calculate the alvelar minute ventilation of spontaneously breathing subject?
fx(Vt-VDSphys)
In clinical practice measuring the physiologic dead space ventilation is achieved by using which formula?
modified Bohr equation
Given a constant cabon dioxide production, how will changing the level of VA affect the PaCO2?
an increase in Va will decrease PaCO2
What is ventilation in excess of metabolic needs called?
hyperventilation
What is the single best indicator of the adequacy or effectiveness of VA?
PaCO2