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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
repiratory path
air from environ , nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveloi where oxygen is exchagned for CO2 in the blood
inspiration occurs when
mdeulla oblongata signals diaphragm (skeletal msucle) to contract
when flat, creates negative gauge pressure
relaxed diaphragm
decreases lung, air out
nasal cavity
space inside the nose, filters, moistens and warms incoming air
secreted by goblet cells traps smaller dust particles and moistens the air, capillaries within the nsala caity warm the air
moves the mucus and dust back toward the pharynx, so that it may be removed by spitting or swallowing
(throat) functions as a passageway for food and air
lies in front of esophapahus, composed of ringed cartilage covered by ciliated mucous cells,
trachea splits into L and R bronchii prior to entering lungs
bronchioles terminate in grape-like clusters composed of
alveoli, these alveolus diffuse oxygen into capillaries where it is picked up by red blood cells, red blood cells release carbon dioxide which then diffuse into the alveolus and is epelled upon exhalation
microtuble production may lead to
problem in breathing (since cilia are needed for respiration) or fertility or CSF circulation)
typical air we inspire is:
79% N, 21%O; exhaled air is 79% N , 16% O, 5% CO2
most blood binds rapidly and reversible to protein ____ inside erthrocytes forming ____
hemoglobin , oxyhemoglobin
hemoglobin composed of ___ polypeptide subunits each with ___ cofactor
4 ; heme cofactor
each of 4 iron atoms in hemoglobin binds to 1 O2 molecules, which accelarates the remaining heme group oxygenation. this is _____
CO2 pressure, pH, temp of blood. , increase in these shifts curve to the right, which means lowering of hemoglobin's affinity to O2
Bohr shift
Shift of O2 dissocation curve due to pH
CO shifts the dissocation curve to right
it has 200 x greater affinity for O2, but administering pure O2 to displace CO from hemoglobin is treatement
CO2 is carried by blood in 3 forms
physcial solution, bicarbonate ion (10 x as prevalanet), cabamino compound
enzyme that governs biocarbonate ion formation to carry CO2 in blood
carobinc anhydrase
chloride shift
when CL moves out of cell in order to balance the electorstatic forces when bicarbonate ion diffuses into cell (when CO2 is absorbed in the lungs)
haldene effect
when hemoglobin is saturated with O2, its capactiy to hold CO2 is reduced; faciliates transfer of CO2 frrom blood to lungs and tissue to blood. reducted Hb (hemoglobin) acts as a blood buffer by accepting protons; the greater capacity of reduced hemoglobin to form to form carbamino hemoglobin which explains Haldene effect
decrease in pH, body increases breathing rate, expelling CO2 and raising pH of blood
rate of breathing is effected by
chemoreceptors in medu.lla nd cartoid arteries and aorta
CO2 is made in
the tissue