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86 Cards in this Set

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Exterior Nostrils
Anterior Nares
The common head cold characterized by acute inflammation of the nasal mucosa
Coryza
Accumulation of a fluid in a cavity or matter that penetrates through vessel walls into adjoining tissue
Exudate
Bloody fluid in the pleural cavity
Hemothorax
Depression where ducts, nerves, or vessels enter or exit an organ
Hilum
A collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity characterized by pain in side & painful breathing; can lead to the collapse of the lung
Pneumothorax
Openings between the nasal cavity & the nasopharynx
Posterior Nares
To bring air & blood into intimate contact so that oxygen can be added to the blood & carbon dioxide can be removed.
Purpose of the
Respiratory System
The taking in of oxygen, its use in the tissues, & the giving off of carbon dioxide.
Respiration
2 types of respiration
External
&
Internal
Process of taking air into the lungs & passing oxygen from the alveoli into the blood. Also called Pulmonary Respiration.
External Respiration
Process of passing oxygen from the blood into the cells, its utilization by the cells, & passing carbon dioxide from cells into the blood. Also called Cellular Respiration.
Internal Respiration
Normal respiration occurs ____ to ____ times per minute.
14 to 20
The mechanical movement of the chest & diaphragm resulting in the flow of air into & out of the lungs.
Breathing
Breathing as well as the utilization of oxygen & production of carbon dioxide by the body cells.
Respiration
1. Pulmonary ventilation
2. External Respiration
3. Internal Respiration
3 steps of process of respiration
1. Inspiration
2. Expiration
2 processes of breathing
Creates surface tension on alveoli. Premature babies do not always have sufficient amounts & thus must be placed in an oxygen-rich environment.
Surfactant
Breathing is controlled by the ____ and the ________ which are located in the brain stem.
Medulla Oblongata
Pons
Brain sends impulses down the spinal cord to the _____ nerve which innervates the diaphragm.
Phrenic
If the brain stem is severely injured, if the spinal chord is severed in the ______ area, or if the phrenic nerve is severed: respiration will cease.
cervical
The medulla is governed by variations in _____ ______ which are detected by chemoreceptors in the _____ ______ of the aortic arch.
blood chemistry

carotid body
The major regulator of respiration?
Carbon dioxide level in the blood
A high blood CO2 level stimulates respiration to allow ___ to be exhaled and ___ to enter the blood stream.
CO2

O2
A low CO2 level will (decrease/increase) the respiratory rate.
decrease
1. Diaphragm
2. Intercostal Muscles
3. Sternocleidomastoid (SCM)
4. Scalenes (elevate thoracic area)
5. External obliques, Internal obliques, transverse & rectus abdominus
Muscles of respiration
Nose
Pharynx
Larynx
Trachea
Bronchi
Lungs
ciliated mucous membrane
Parts of the respiratory system
Nasal cavities lie between ....
roof of the mouth & the cranium
What seperates the nasal cavities?
Vertical partition known as nasal septum
The nasal cavities are constructed of bone covered by?
ciliated mucous membranes
Three projections on the side walls of the nose that greatly increase the surface area over which the air must travel before reaching the lungs.
Nasal Conchae
or
Turbinates
Mucous membranes of teh nose are very vascular because they contain many blood vessels which bring ___ & ___ to the surface.
Warmth & Moisture
1. Serves as passageway for air going to the lungs

2. Warms, moistens, & filters the air of impurities

3. Serves as organ of smell (receptors in mucosa)

4. Aids in phonation, especially of n, m, & ng
Functions of the Nose
Cavities lined with ciliated mucous membranes that open into the nasal cavities.
Sinuses
1. Frontal (2)
2. Maxillary (2)
3. Sphenoidal (2)
4. Ethmoidal (2)
Sinuses - type & number
Opens into the nasopharynx, & equilizes the air pressure between tje external & middle ear.
Eustachian Tube
Communicates indirectly with the lacrimal gland
Nasolacrimal ducts
A muscular tube-like structure, about 5 inches long, which extends from the base of the skull to the esophagus
Pharynx

AKA Throat
Lies anterior to the cervical vertebrae
Location of pharynx
Pharynx is composed of ________ & is lined with ________
smooth muscle

mucous membrane
1. Passes air from nasal cavity to larynx
2. Passes food & liquids from mouth to esophagus
2 purposes of the pharynx
1. Nasopharynx
2. Oropharynx
3. Laryngopharynx
3 divisions of the pharynx
The upper portion of the pharynx located behind the nose & above the palate
Nasopharynx
The portion of the pharynx that contains the pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) & communicates with the eustachian tube
Nasopharynx
Middle portion of the pharynx that lies behind the mouth & between the palate & hyoid bone
Oropharynx
Portion of the pharynx that contains the palatine & lingual tonsils
Oropharynx
Lower portion of the pharynx that lies immediately below the hyoid bone & above the larynx
Laryngopharynx
The organ of voice that acts as a passageway for air between the pharynx & trachea. It lies at the upper end of the trachea & just below the pharynx. It si shaped like a triangular box with flat sides & a prominant ridge in front.
Larynx
The larynx consists of (8/9/10) pieces of cartilage which are connected by ligaments & are moved by various muscles.
9
Large cartilage of the larynx that forms the Adams apple (larger in men than women)
Thyroid Cartilage
Cartilage that covers the entrance into the larynx when swallowing, thus preventing food or liquids from entering the airway.
Epiglottis
Lowest cartilage of the larynx shaped like a signet ring
Cricoid Cartilage
One of 2 pairs of cords of the larynx: these lie at the upper end along the sides of the larynx.
False vocal cords
One of 2 pairs of cords of the larynx: these Lie directly under the other pair.
True Vocal Cords
The space (slit) between the vocal folds
glottis
____ vocal cords make the vocal sounds & are set into vibration by the flow of air from the lungs.
True
Extends from the lower edge of the larynx to the bronchi. About 11cm (4.5") in length & about 2 to 2.5cm (1") from side to side. It is a tube of smooth muscle strengthened & held open by 16 to 20 C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage; the open portion of the C-shape is towards the posterior which lies next to the esophagus.
Trachea

AKA Windpipe
The trachea is lined with mucous membrane and provides an open passageway for air from the larynx to the ________
Bronchi of the Lungs
Obstruction of this for even a few minutes can cause death by asphyxiation.
trachea
Waste product of respiration?
CO2
Hair-like projections on the lining of the respiratory system are called?
Cilia
The use each body cell makes of its oxygen supply is described as?
Internal respiration
An important function of teh alveoli in the respiratory system is to pass O2 from the respiratory system into the ________ system.
Cardio-Pulmonary
or
Circulatory
Foods & fluids are kept out of the trachea by the function of the ________.
Epiglottis
The vocal cords are in the ______.
larynx
The respiratory tract is lined with?
mucous membrane
Hoarseness or the inability to make voice sounds probably would be a result of inflamation of the ________
larynx?
vocal cords?
Adenoids is the common term for the _____.
Pharyngeal Tonsils
The system that serves to exchange gases between the air & the blood is known as ________.
Respiratory system
Many children with tonsilitis develope an ear infection. This is because the ear & throat are connected by the ________.
Eustachian tube
The space between the Lungs is known as the _______.
Mediastinum
The nerve that controls the diaphragm is known as the _______ nerve.
Phrenic
The larynx is usually larger in the _____.
Male
The tonsils which are removed suring a tonsilectomy are located in the ______
Oropharynx
The true vocal cords are fibrous bands that stretch across the ______.
larynx
Another name for the chest is the ____.
Thorax
The Trachea is also known as the Throat. (T/F)
True
Bronchi consists of 4 primary bronchi (T/F)
False
The right bronchus is shorter & more verticle than the left bronchus. (T/F)
True
The bronchioles divide into secondary bronchi. (T/F)
False
The alveoli (enveloped by a network of capillaries) provide spaces where gaseous exchange between the air & the blood can occur. (T/F)
True
The lungs contain the aveoli which are essential for (water/gaseous) exchange.
gaseous
At birth the lungs are (pink/gray) but with increasing age they become (pink/gray) color due to the inhalation of dust, polution, & smoke.
pink

gray
The (left/right) lung is slightly larger, heavier, & shorter by about 1" than the other side.
right
The lungs are spongy, elastic, & (sink/float) in water
float
The apex of the lung is the point (lower/upper) margin which extends slightly above the (clavicle/diaphragm).
Upper

Clavicle